Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2023

Physics Master Information
Electives
General Electives
Students may choose General Electives from the entire course programme of ETH Zurich - with the following restrictions: courses that belong to the first or second year of a Bachelor curriculum at ETH Zurich as well as courses from GESS "Science in Perspective" are not eligible here.
The following courses are explicitly recommended to physics students by their lecturers. (Courses in this list may be assigned to the category "General Electives" directly in myStudies. For the category assignment of other eligible courses keep the choice "no category" and take contact with the Study Administration (Link) after having received the credits.)
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
101-0178-01LUncertainty Quantification in Engineering Information W3 credits2GN. Lüthen
AbstractUncertainty quantification aims at studying the impact of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty onto computational models used in science and engineering. The course introduces the basic concepts of uncertainty quantification: probabilistic modelling of data (copula theory), uncertainty propagation techniques (Monte Carlo simulation, polynomial chaos expansions), and sensitivity analysis.
ObjectiveAfter this course students will be able to properly pose an uncertainty quantification problem, select the appropriate computational methods and interpret the results in meaningful statements for field scientists, engineers and decision makers. The course is suitable for any master/Ph.D. student in engineering or natural sciences, physics, mathematics, computer science with a basic knowledge of probability theory.
ContentThe course introduces uncertainty quantification through a set of practical case studies that come from civil, mechanical, nuclear and electrical engineering, from which a general framework is introduced. The course in then divided into three blocks: probabilistic modelling (introduction to copula theory), uncertainty propagation (Monte Carlo simulation and polynomial chaos expansions) and sensitivity analysis (correlation measures, Sobol' indices). Each block contains lectures and tutorials using Matlab and the in-house software UQLab (Link).
Lecture notesDetailed slides are provided for each lecture. A printed script gathering all the lecture slides may be bought at the beginning of the semester.
Prerequisites / NoticeA basic background in probability theory and statistics (bachelor level) is required. A summary of useful notions will be handed out at the beginning of the course.

A good knowledge of Matlab is required to participate in the tutorials and for the mini-project.
CompetenciesCompetencies
Subject-specific CompetenciesConcepts and Theoriesassessed
Techniques and Technologiesassessed
Method-specific CompetenciesAnalytical Competenciesassessed
Problem-solvingassessed
Project Managementfostered
Social CompetenciesCommunicationfostered
Cooperation and Teamworkfostered
Personal CompetenciesCritical Thinkingfostered
Self-direction and Self-management fostered
151-0160-00LFuel Cycle and Waste Management
Note: The previous course title until FS22 "Nuclear Energy Systems".
W4 credits2V + 1UR. Eichler, S. Churakov, T. Kämpfer, M. Streit
AbstractPhysical and chemical aspects of the synthesis and distribution of uranium, radioactive decay and detection, uranium production, uranium enrichment, nuclear fuel production, reprocessing of spent fuel, nuclear waste disposal and final deep geological repository
ObjectiveStudents get an overview on the physical and chemical fundamentals, the technological processes and the environmental impact of the full energy conversion chain of nuclear power generation including final repository.
Content(1-5) survey on the cosmic and geological origin of uranium and its deposits, (radio-) chemical fundamentals relevant for uranium handling, radiaoctive decay and its detection; (6-9) methods of uranium mining, separation of uranium from the ore, enrichment of uranium (diffusion cells, ultra-centrifuges, alternative methods), chemical conversion uranium oxid - fluorid - oxid, fuel rod fabrication processes, fuel reprocessing (hydrochemical, pyrochemical) including modern developments of deep partitioning as well as methods to treat and minimize the amount and radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. (10-13) nuclear waste disposal, waste categories and origin, geological and engineered barriers in deep geological repositories, the project of a deep geological disposal for radioactive waste in Switzerland
Lecture notesLecture slides will be distributed as handouts and in digital form
151-0156-00LTechnology and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants Information
Note: The previous course title until FS22 "Safety of Nuclear Power Plants".
W6 credits4V + 1UA. Manera
AbstractKnowledge about safety concepts and requirements of nuclear power plants and their implementation in deterministic safety concepts and safety systems. Knowledge about behavior under accident conditions and about the methods of probabilistic risk analysis and how to handle results. Introduction into key elements of the enhanced safety of nuclear systems for the future.
ObjectiveDeep understanding of safety requirements, concepts and system of nuclear power plants, knowledge of deterministic and probabilistic methods for safety analysis, aspects of nuclear safety research, licensing of nuclear power plant operation. Overview on key elements of the enhanced safety of nuclear systems for the future.
Content(1) Introduction into the specific safety issues of nuclear power plants, main facts of health effects of ionizing radiation, defense in depth approach. (2) Reactor protection and reactivity control, reactivity induced accidents (RIA). (3) Loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA), emergency core cooling systems. (4) Short introduction into severe accidents (Beyond Design Base Accidents, BDBA). (5) Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA level 1,2,3). (6) Passive safety systems. (7) Safety of innovative reactor concepts.
Lecture notesScript:
Hand-outs of lecture slides will be distributed
Script "Short introduction into basics of nuclear power"
LiteratureS. Glasston & A. Sesonke: Nuclear Reactor Engineering, Reactor System Engineering, Ed. 4, Vol. 2., Chapman & Hall, NY, 1994
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites:
Recommended in advance (not binding): 151-0163-00L Nuclear Energy Conversion
151-0166-00LPhysics of Nuclear Reactor IIW4 credits3GK. Mikityuk
AbstractReactor physics calculations for assessing the performance and safety of nuclear power plants are, in practice, carried out using large computer codes simulating different key phenomena. This course provides a basis for understanding state-of-the-art calculational methodologies in the above context.
ObjectiveStudents are introduced to advanced methods of reactor physics analysis for nuclear power plants.
ContentCross-sections preparation. Slowing down theory. Differential form of the neutron transport equation and method of discrete ordinates (Sn). Integral form of the neutron transport equation and method of characteristics. Method of Monte-Carlo. Modeling of fuel depletion. Lattice calculations and cross-section parametrization. Modeling of full core neutronics using nodal methods. Modeling of feedbacks from fuel behavior and thermal hydraulics. Point and spatial reactor kinetics. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.
Lecture notesHand-outs will be provided on the website.
LiteratureChapters from various text books on Reactor Theory, etc.
151-1906-00LMultiphase FlowsW4 credits3GF. Coletti
AbstractIntroduction to fluid flows with multiple interacting phases. The emphasis is on regimes where a dispersed phase is carried by a continuous one: e.g., particles, bubbles and droplets suspended in gas or liquid flows, laminar or turbulent. The flow physics is put in the context of natural, biological, and industrial problems.
ObjectiveThe main learning objectives are:
- identify multiphase flow regimes and relevant non-dimensional parameters
- distinguish spatio-temporal scales at play for each phase
- quantify mutual coupling between different phases
- apply fundamental principles in complex real-world flows
- combine insight from theory, experiments, and numerics
ContentSingle particle and multi-particle dynamics in laminar and turbulent flows; basics of suspension rheology; effects of surface tension on the formation, evolution and motion of bubbles and droplets; free-surface flows and wind-wave interaction; imaging techniques and modeling approaches.
Lecture notesLecture slides are made available.
LiteratureSuggested readings are provided for each topic.
Prerequisites / NoticeFundamental knowledge of fluid dynamics is essential.
151-0530-00LNonlinear Dynamics and Chaos IIW4 credits4GG. Haller
AbstractThe internal structure of chaos; Hamiltonian dynamical systems; Normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds; Geometric singular perturbation theory; Finite-time dynamical systems
ObjectiveThe course introduces the student to advanced, comtemporary concepts of nonlinear dynamical systems analysis.
ContentI. The internal structure of chaos: symbolic dynamics, Bernoulli shift map, sub-shifts of finite type; chaos is numerical iterations.

II.Hamiltonian dynamical systems: conservation and recurrence, stability of fixed points, integrable systems, invariant tori, Liouville-Arnold-Jost Theorem, KAM theory.

III. Normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds: Crash course on differentiable manifolds, existence, persistence, and smoothness, applications.
IV. Geometric singular perturbation theory: slow manifolds and their stability, physical examples. V. Finite-time dynamical system; detecting Invariant manifolds and coherent structures in finite-time flows
Lecture notesHandwritten instructor's notes and typed lecture notes will be downloadable from Moodle.
LiteratureBooks will be recommended in class
Prerequisites / NoticeNonlinear Dynamics I (151-0532-00) or equivalent
151-0620-00LEmbedded MEMS LabW5 credits3PC. Hierold, M. Haluska
AbstractPractical course: Students are introduced to the process steps required for the fabrication of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) and carry out the fabrication and testing steps in the clean rooms themselves. Additionally, they learn the requirements for working in clean rooms. Processing and characterization will be documented and analyzed in a final report.
ObjectiveStudents learn the individual process steps that are required to make a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System). Students carry out the process steps themselves in laboratories and clean rooms. Furthermore, participants become familiar with the special requirements (cleanliness, safety, operation of equipment and handling hazardous chemicals) of working in the clean rooms and laboratories. The entire production, processing, and characterization of the MEMS is documented and evaluated in a final report.
ContentWith guidance from a tutor, the individual silicon microsystem process steps that are required for the fabrication of an accelerometer are carried out:
- Photolithography, dry etching, wet etching, sacrificial layer etching, various cleaning procedures
- Packaging and electrical connection of a MEMS device
- Testing and characterization of the MEMS device
- Written documentation and evaluation of the entire production, processing and characterization
Lecture notesA document containing theory, background and practical course content is distributed in the informational meeting.
LiteratureThe document provides sufficient information for the participants to successfully participate in the course.
Prerequisites / NoticeParticipating students are required to attend all scheduled lectures and meetings of the course.

Participating students are required to provide proof that they have personal accident insurance prior to the start of the laboratory portion of the course.

This master's level course is limited to 15 students per semester for safety and efficiency reasons.
If there are more than 15 students registered, we regret to restrict access to this course by the following rules:

Priority 1: master students of the master's program in "Micro and Nanosystems"

Priority 2: master students of the master's program in "Mechanical Engineering" with a specialization in Microsystems and Nanoscale Engineering (MAVT-tutors Profs Hierold, Koumoutsakos, Nelson, Norris, Poulikakos, Pratsinis, Stemmer), who attended the bachelor course "151-0621-00L Microsystems Technology" successfully.

Priority 3: master students, who attended the bachelor course "151-0621-00L Microsystems Technology" successfully.

Priority 4: all other students (PhD, bachelor, master) with a background in silicon or microsystems process technology.

If there are more students in one of these priority groups than places available, we will decide with respect to (in following order) best achieved grade from 151-0621-00L Microsystems Technology, registration to this practicum at previous semester, and by drawing lots.
Students will be notified at the first lecture of the course (introductory lecture) as to whether they are able to participate.

The course is offered in autumn and spring semester.
151-0928-00LCO2 Capture and Storage and the Industry of Carbon-Based ResourcesW4 credits3GA. Bardow, V. Becattini, N. Gruber, M. Mazzotti, M. Repmann, T. Schmidt, D. Sutter
AbstractThis course introduces the fundamentals of carbon capture, utilization, and storage and related interdependencies between technosphere, ecosphere, and sociosphere. Topics covered: origin, production, processing, and economics of carbon-based resources; climate change in science & policies; CC(U)S systems; CO2 transport & storage; life-cycle assessment; net-zero emissions; CO2 removal options.
ObjectiveThe lecture aims to introduce carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) systems, the technical solutions developed so far, and current research questions. This is done in the context of the origin, production, processing, and economics of carbon-based resources and of climate change issues. After this course, students are familiar with relevant technical and non-technical issues related to using carbon resources, climate change, and CCUS as a mitigation measure.

The class will be structured in 2 hours of lecture and one hour of exercises/discussion.
ContentThe transition to a net-zero society is associated with major challenges in all sectors, including energy, transportation, and industry. In the IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C, rapid emission reduction and negative emission technologies are crucial to limiting global warming to below 1.5 °C. Therefore, this course illuminates carbon capture, utilization, and storage as a potential set of technologies for emission mitigation and for generating negative emissions.
Lecture notesLecture slides and supplementary documents will be available online.
LiteratureIPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, 2018.
Link

IPCC AR5 Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report, 2014.
Link

IPCC AR6 Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change, 2022.
Link

Global Status of CCS 2020. Published by the Global CCS Institute, 2020.
Link
Prerequisites / NoticeExternal lecturers from the industry and other institutes will contribute with specialized lectures according to the schedule distributed at the beginning of the semester.
227-1046-00LComputer Simulations of Sensory Systems Information W3 credits3GT. Haslwanter
AbstractThis course deals with computer simulations of the human auditory, visual, and balance system. The lecture will cover the physiological and mechanical mechanisms of these sensory systems. And in the exercises, the simulations will be implemented with Python. The simulations will be such that their output could be used as input for actual neuro-sensory prostheses.
ObjectiveOur sensory systems provide us with information about what is happening in the world surrounding us. Thereby they transform incoming mechanical, electromagnetic, and chemical signals into “action potentials”, the language of the central nervous system.
The main goal of this lecture is to describe how our sensors achieve these transformations, how they can be reproduced with computational tools. For example, our auditory system performs approximately a “Fourier transformation” of the incoming sound waves; our early visual system is optimized for finding edges in images that are projected onto our retina; and our balance system can be well described with a “control system” that transforms linear and rotational movements into nerve impulses.
In the exercises that go with this lecture, we will use Python to reproduce the transformations achieved by our sensory systems. The goal is to write programs whose output could be used as input for actual neurosensory prostheses: such prostheses have become commonplace for the auditory system, and are under development for the visual and the balance system. For the corresponding exercises, at least some basic programing experience is required!
ContentThe following topics will be covered:
• Introduction into the signal processing in nerve cells.
• Introduction into Python.
• Simplified simulation of nerve cells (Hodgkins-Huxley model).
• Description of the auditory system, including the application of Fourier transforms on recorded sounds.
• Description of the visual system, including the retina and the information processing in the visual cortex. The corresponding exercises will provide an introduction to digital image processing.
• Description of the mechanics of our balance system, and the “Control System”-language that can be used for an efficient description of the corresponding signal processing (essentially Laplace transforms and control systems).
Lecture notesFor each module additional material will be provided on the e-learning platform "moodle". The main content of the lecture is also available as a wikibook, under Link
LiteratureOpen source information is available as wikibook Link

For good overviews of the neuroscience, I recommend:

• Principles of Neural Science (5th Ed, 2012), by Eric Kandel, James Schwartz, Thomas Jessell, Steven Siegelbaum, A.J. Hudspeth
ISBN 0071390111 / 9780071390118
THE standard textbook on neuroscience.
NOTE: The 6th edition will be released on February 5, 2021!
• L. R. Squire, D. Berg, F. E. Bloom, Lac S. du, A. Ghosh, and N. C. Spitzer. Fundamental Neuroscience, Academic Press - Elsevier, 2012 [ISBN: 9780123858702].
This book covers the biological components, from the functioning of an individual ion channels through the various senses, all the way to consciousness. And while it does not cover the computational aspects, it nevertheless provides an excellent overview of the underlying neural processes of sensory systems.

• G. Mather. Foundations of Sensation and Perception, 2nd Ed Psychology Press, 2009 [ISBN: 978-1-84169-698-0 (hardcover), oder 978-1-84169-699-7 (paperback)]
A coherent, up-to-date introduction to the basic facts and theories concerning human sensory perception.

• The best place to get started with Python programming are the Link

On signal processing with Python, my upcoming book
• Hands-on Signal Analysis with Python (Due: January 13, 2021
ISBN 978-3-030-57902-9, Link)
will contain an explanation to all the required programming tools and packages.
Prerequisites / Notice•Since I have to travel from Linz, Austria, to Zurich to give this lecture, I plan to hold this lecture online every 2nd week.

In addition to the lectures, this course includes external lab visits to institutes actively involved in research on the relevant sensory systems.
227-0147-00LVLSI 2: From Netlist to Complete System on Chip Information W6 credits5GF. K. Gürkaynak, L. Benini
AbstractThis second course in our VLSI series is concerned with how to turn digital circuit netlists into safe, testable and manufacturable mask layout, taking into account various parasitic effects. Low-power circuit design is another important topic. Economic aspects and management issues of VLSI projects round off the course.
ObjectiveKnow how to design digital VLSI circuits that are safe, testable, durable, and make economic sense.
ContentThe second course begins with a thorough discussion of various technical aspects at the circuit and layout level before moving on to economic issues of VLSI. Topics include:
- The difficulties of finding fabrication defects in large VLSI chips.
- How to make integrated circuit testable (design for test).
- Synchronous clocking disciplines compared, clock skew, clock distribution, input/output timing.
- Synchronization and metastability.
- CMOS transistor-level circuits of gates, flip-flops and random access memories.
- Sinks of energy in CMOS circuits.
- Power estimation and low-power design.
- Current research in low-energy computing.
- Layout parasitics, interconnect delay, static timing analysis.
- Switching currents, ground bounce, IR-drop, power distribution.
- Floorplanning, chip assembly, packaging.
- Layout design at the mask level, physical design verification.
- Electromigration, electrostatic discharge, and latch-up.
- Models of industrial cooperation in microelectronics.
- The caveats of virtual components.
- The cost structures of ASIC development and manufacturing.
- Market requirements, decision criteria, and case studies.
- Yield models.
- Avenues to low-volume fabrication.
- Marketing considerations and case studies.
- Management of VLSI projects.

Exercises are concerned with back-end design (floorplanning, placement, routing, clock and power distribution, layout verification). Industrial CAD tools are being used.
Lecture notesH. Kaeslin: "Top-Down Digital VLSI Design, from Gate-Level Circuits to CMOS Fabrication", Lecture Notes Vol.2 , 2015.

All written documents in English.
LiteratureH. Kaeslin: "Top-Down Digital VLSI Design, from Architectures to Gate-Level Circuits and FPGAs", Elsevier, 2014, ISBN 9780128007303.
Prerequisites / NoticeHighlight:
Students are offered the opportunity to design a circuit of their own which then gets actually fabricated as a microchip! Students who elect to participate in this program register for a term project at the Integrated Systems Laboratory in parallel to attending the VLSI II course.

Prerequisites:
"VLSI I: from Architectures to Very Large Scale Integration Circuits and FPGAs" or equivalent knowledge.

Further details:
Link
227-0148-00LVLSI 4: Practical VLSI: Measurement and Testing Information W6 credits4GF. K. Gürkaynak, L. Benini
AbstractIn this revamped course, we will concentrate on practical aspects of modern integrated circuit testing with an emphasis on hands-on-experience on an IC tester. This will help students to better understand several aspects that have been highlighted in previous VLSI lecture series and allow them to test their own ICs designed during prior semester/bachelor theses.
ObjectiveIn this course, students will:
- Get hands-on experience working in a modern IC Test laboratory and learn the steps needed to bring-up, characterize and test digital integrated circuits.
- Develop problem solving skills and get experience in approaching issues that involve many different engineering steps.
- Gather first hand experience how Design-For-Test (DFT) methodologies help for IC Design, and understand the trade-offs between performance and testability.
- Learn about challenges of IC Manufacturing process, and what kind of failures can be encountered, and get a deeper understanding of IC Design process
- For students that have worked on a prior bachelor/semester thesis on an IC design project, allow them to test their own IC.
ContentIf you want to earn money by selling ICs, you will have to deliver a product that will function properly with a very large probability. This lecture will be discussing how this can be achieved.

The main point of emphasis will be hands-on-exercises on a state-of-the-art automated test equipment (Advantest SoC V93000) where students will work in groups of two (or maximum three). Students will be able to schedule their exercises so that it fits their individual schedule.

There will also be concentrated classroom lectures that will convey the necessary information that students will need for the exercises which will cover aspects of
- Economics of testing
- CMOS manufacturing and fault models, stuck at faults
- Automated Test Equipment
- Measuring timing and power
- Testing of memories
- Built in Self-Test (BIST)

There will be 10 lectures (some weeks will be lecture free, exact schedule to be communicated) and 8 exercises. The final exercise will involve individual work where students test an IC with the knowledge they gained from previous exercises. Students that complete this exercise and present a test report (4-10 pages) will pass the course.

Please note that the exercises in this class are involved and will require you to make preparations in advance. Expect to spend at least 4 hours of your own time for exercise preparations, and expect at least three individual half day sessions for the final exercise where you test the IC to qualify for a passing grade. It will be possible to finish the exercises until the end of July.
Lecture notesThe following book will accompany students during the lecture: "Essentials of Electronic Testing for Digital, Memory and Mixed-Signal VLSI Circuits" by Michael L. Bushnell and Vishwani D. Agrawal, Springer, 2004. This book is available online within ETH through
Link
LiteratureCourse website:
Link
Prerequisites / NoticeVLSI4 is meant for students interested in digital IC Design and especially for students that are planning or have already done a bachelor/semester thesis on IC Design.

Although not strictly necessary, VLSI2 would be quite helpful for students visiting this lecture, VLSI2 and VLSI4 can be visited at the same time.

Other lectures of the VLSI series (VLSI1, VLSI3) are not needed to follow VLSI4.

Course website for up to date information:
Link
227-0161-00LMolecular and Materials Modelling Information W6 credits2V + 2UD. Passerone, C. Pignedoli
AbstractThe course introduces the basic techniques to interpret experiments with contemporary atomistic simulation, including force fields or ab initio based molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo. Structural and electronic properties will be simulated hands-on for realistic systems.
The modern methods of "big data" analysis applied to the screening of chemical structures will be introduced with examples.
ObjectiveThe ability to select a suitable atomistic approach to model a nanoscale system, and to employ a simulation package to compute quantities providing a theoretically sound explanation of a given experiment. This includes knowledge of empirical force fields and insight in electronic structure theory, in particular density functional theory (DFT). Understanding the advantages of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics (MD), and how these simulation methods can be used to compute various static and dynamic material properties. Basic understanding on how to simulate different spectroscopies (IR, X-ray, UV/VIS). Performing a basic computational experiment: interpreting the experimental input, choosing theory level and model approximations, performing the calculations, collecting and representing the results, discussing the comparison to the experiment.
Content-Classical force fields in molecular and condensed phase systems
-Methods for finding stationary states in a potential energy surface
-Monte Carlo techniques applied to nanoscience
-Classical molecular dynamics: extracting quantities and relating to experimentally accessible properties
-From molecular orbital theory to quantum chemistry: chemical reactions
-Condensed phase systems: from periodicity to band structure
-Larger scale systems and their electronic properties: density functional theory and its approximations
-Advanced molecular dynamics: Correlation functions and extracting free energies
-The use of Smooth Overlap of Atomic Positions (SOAP) descriptors in the evaluation of the (dis)similarity of crystalline, disordered and molecular compounds
Lecture notesA script will be made available and complemented by literature references.
LiteratureD. Frenkel and B. Smit, Understanding Molecular Simulations, Academic Press, 2002.

M. P. Allen and D.J. Tildesley, Computer Simulations of Liquids, Oxford University Press 1990.

C. J. Cramer, Essentials of Computational Chemistry. Theories and Models, Wiley 2004

G. L. Miessler, P. J. Fischer, and Donald A. Tarr, Inorganic Chemistry, Pearson 2014.

K. Huang, Statistical Mechanics, Wiley, 1987.

N. W. Ashcroft, N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Saunders College 1976.

E. Kaxiras, Atomic and Electronic Structure of Solids, Cambridge University Press 2010.
227-0455-00LTerahertz: Technology and Applications
Does not take place this semester.
W5 credits3G + 3A
AbstractThis block course will provide a solid foundation for understanding physical principles of THz applications. We will discuss various building blocks of THz technology - components dealing with generation, manipulation, and detection of THz electromagnetic radiation. We will introduce THz applications in the domain of imaging, sensing, communications, non-destructive testing and evaluations.
ObjectiveThis is an introductory course on Terahertz (THz) technology and applications. Devices operating in THz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz) have been increasingly studied in the recent years. Progress in nonlinear optical materials, ultrafast optical and electronic techniques has strengthened research in THz application developments. Due to unique interaction of THz waves with materials, applications with new capabilities can be developed. In theory, they can penetrate somewhat like X-rays, but are not considered harmful radiation, because THz energy level is low. They should be able to provide resolution as good as or better than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), possibly with simpler equipment. Imaging, very-high bandwidth communication, and energy harvesting are the most widely explored THz application areas. We will study the basics of THz generation, manipulation, and detection. Our emphasis will be on the physical principles and applications of THz in the domain of imaging, sensing, communications, non-destructive testing and evaluations.

The second part of the block course will be a short project work related to the topics covered in the lecture. The learnings from the project work should be presented in the end.
ContentPART I:

- INTRODUCTION -
Chapter 1: Introduction to THz Physics
Chapter 2: Components of THz Technology

- THz TECHNOLOGY MODULES -
Chapter 3: THz Generation
Chapter 4: THz Detection
Chapter 5: THz Manipulation

- APPLICATIONS -
Chapter 6: THz Imaging / Sensing / Communication
Chapter 7: THz Non-destructive Testing
Chapter 8: THz Applications in Plastic & Recycling Industries

PART 2:

- PROJECT WORK -
Short project work related to the topics covered in the lecture.
Short presentation of the learnings from the project work.
Full guidance and supervision will be given for successful completion of the short project work.
Lecture notesSoft-copy of lectures notes will be provided.
Literature- Yun-Shik Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology, Springer 2009
- Ali Rostami, Hassan Rasooli, and Hamed Baghban, Terahertz Technology: Fundamentals and Applications, Springer 2010
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic foundation in physics, particularly, electromagnetics is required.
Students who want to refresh their electromagnetics fundamentals can get additional material required for the course.
252-0220-00LIntroduction to Machine Learning Information Restricted registration - show details
Preference is given to students in programmes in which the course is being offered. All other students will be waitlisted. Please do not contact Prof. Krause for any questions in this regard. If necessary, please contact Link
W8 credits4V + 2U + 1AA. Krause, F. Yang
AbstractThe course introduces the foundations of learning and making predictions based on data.
ObjectiveThe course will introduce the foundations of learning and making predictions from data. We will study basic concepts such as trading goodness of fit and model complexitiy. We will discuss important machine learning algorithms used in practice, and provide hands-on experience in a course project.
Content- Linear regression (overfitting, cross-validation/bootstrap, model selection, regularization, [stochastic] gradient descent)
- Linear classification: Logistic regression (feature selection, sparsity, multi-class)
- Kernels and the kernel trick (Properties of kernels; applications to linear and logistic regression); k-nearest neighbor
- Neural networks (backpropagation, regularization, convolutional neural networks)
- Unsupervised learning (k-means, PCA, neural network autoencoders)
- The statistical perspective (regularization as prior; loss as likelihood; learning as MAP inference)
- Statistical decision theory (decision making based on statistical models and utility functions)
- Discriminative vs. generative modeling (benefits and challenges in modeling joint vy. conditional distributions)
- Bayes' classifiers (Naive Bayes, Gaussian Bayes; MLE)
- Bayesian approaches to unsupervised learning (Gaussian mixtures, EM)
Prerequisites / NoticeDesigned to provide a basis for following courses:
- Advanced Machine Learning
- Deep Learning
- Probabilistic Artificial Intelligence
- Seminar "Advanced Topics in Machine Learning"
CompetenciesCompetencies
Subject-specific CompetenciesConcepts and Theoriesassessed
Techniques and Technologiesassessed
Method-specific CompetenciesAnalytical Competenciesassessed
Decision-makingassessed
Media and Digital Technologiesassessed
Problem-solvingassessed
Project Managementassessed
Social CompetenciesCommunicationfostered
Cooperation and Teamworkfostered
Personal CompetenciesCreative Thinkingassessed
Critical Thinkingassessed
Integrity and Work Ethicsfostered
327-2139-00LDiffraction Physics in Materials ScienceW3 credits3GR. Erni
AbstractThe lecture focuses on diffraction and scattering phenomena in materials science beyond basic Bragg diffraction. Introducing the Born approximation and Kirchhoff’s theory, diffraction from ideal and non-ideal crystals is treated including, e.g., temperature and size effects, ordering phenomena, small-angle scattering and dynamical diffraction theories for both electron and X-ray diffraction.
Objective• To become familiar with advanced diffraction phenomena in order to be able to explore the structure and properties of (solid) matter and their defects.

• To be able to judge what type of diffraction method is suitable to probe what type of materials information.

• To build up a generally applicable and fundamental theoretical understanding of scattering and diffraction effects.

• To be able to identify limitations of the methods and the underlying theory which is commonly used to analyze diffraction data.
ContentThe course provides a general introduction to advanced diffraction phenomena in materials science. The lecture series covers the following topics: derivation of a general scattering theory based on Green’s function as basis for the introduction of the first-order Born approximation; Kirchhoff’s diffraction theory with its integral theorem and the specific cases of Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction; diffraction from ideal crystals and diffraction from real crystals considering temperature effects expressed by the temperature Debye-Waller factor and by thermal diffuse scattering, atomic size effects expressed by the static Debye-Waller factor and diffuse scattering due to the modulation of the Laue monotonic scattering as a consequence of local order or clustering; the basics of small-angle scattering; and finally approaches used to treat dynamical diffraction are introduced. In addition, the specifics of X-ray, electron and neutron scattering are being discussed. The course is complemented by a lab visit, selected exercises and short topical presentations given by the participants.
Lecture notesFull-text script is available covering within about 100 pages the core topics of the lecture and all necessary derivations.
Literature- Diffraction Physics, 3rd ed., J. M. Cowley, Elsevier, 1994.

- X-Ray Diffraction, B. E. Warren, Dover, 1990.

- Diffraction from Materials, 2nd ed., L. H. Schwartz, J. B. Cohen, Springer, 1987.

- X-Ray Diffraction – In Crystals, Imperfect Crystals and Amorphous Bodies, A. Guinier, Dover, 1994.

- Aberration-corrected imaging in transmission electron microscopy, 2nd ed., R. Erni, Imperial College Press, 2015.
Prerequisites / NoticeBasics of crystallography and the concept of reciprocal space, basics of electromagnetic and particle waves (but not mandatory)
327-2141-00LMaterials+ Restricted registration - show details W6 credits6GH. Galinski, R. Nicolosi Libanori
AbstractMaterials+ is a team-based learning course focusing on sustained learning of key material concepts. This course teaches critical thinking and solving hands on material problems. The students will work in groups of five to solve a materials challenge. The eight week-long project includes a poster presentation and culminates in a materials challenge, where all groups compete against each other.
ObjectiveThe overarching goal of this course is to provide students a risk-friendly environment, where they can learn the tools and mind-set to aim for scientific breakthroughs. The materials challenge is thought to be a stimulus rather than a goal, to aim for new solutions and creative ideas.
Students enrolled in the course will acquire technical skills on materials selection, integration and engineering. Furthermore, they will develop personal and social competencies, especially in decision-making, communication, cooperation, coordination, adaptability and flexibility, creative and critical thinking, project management, problem-solving, integrity and ethics.
ContentIn each term, the students will solve a materials challenge in class by applying three "state-of-the-art" material science concepts.
Students will take an active role as they work with their peers in small groups to strengthen and apply their learned expert skills.
The course is designed to promote student learning of key material concepts in an applied context and stimulate the developing of soft skills from inter- and intra-team social interactions.
364-0576-00LAdvanced Sustainability Economics Information
PhD course, open for MSc students
W3 credits3GE. Komarov, C. Renoir
AbstractThe course covers current resource and sustainability economics, including ethical foundations of sustainability, intertemporal optimisation in capital-resource economies, sustainable use of non-renewable and renewable resources, pollution dynamics, population growth, and sectoral heterogeneity. A final part is on empirical contributions, e.g. the resource curse, energy prices, and the EKC.
ObjectiveUnderstanding of the current issues and economic methods in sustainability research; ability to solve typical problems like the calculation of the growth rate under environmental restriction with the help of appropriate model equations.

Please note that the course takes places in Zurichbergstrasse 18, which requires an ETH card to enter. We kindly ask Non-ETH students to inform
Clément Renoir if they would like to attend.
529-0442-00LAdvanced Kinetics Information W6 credits3GJ. Richardson
AbstractThis lecture covers the theoretical and conceptual foundations of quantum dynamics in molecular systems. Particular attention is taken to derive and compare quantum and classical approximations which can be used to simulate the dynamics of molecular systems and the reaction rate constant used in chemical kinetics.
ObjectiveThe theory of quantum dynamics is derived from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. This is illustrated with molecular examples including tunnelling, recurrences, nonadiabatic crossings. We consider thermal distributions, correlation functions, interaction with light and nonadiabatic effects. Quantum scattering theory is introduced and applied to discuss molecular collisions. The dynamics of systems with a very large number of quantum states are discussed to understand the transition from microscopic to macroscopic dynamics. A rigorous rate theory is obtained both from a quantum-mechanical picture as well as within the classical approximation. The approximations leading to conventional transition-state theory for polyatomic reactions are discussed. In this way, relaxation and irreversibility will be explained which are at the foundation of statistical mechanics.

By the end of the course, the student will have learned many ways to simplify the complex problem posed by quantum dynamics. They will understand when and why certain approximations are valid in different situations and will use this to make quantitative and qualitative predictions about how different molecular systems behave.
Lecture notesWill be available online.
LiteratureD. J. Tannor, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics: A Time-Dependent Perspective
R. D. Levine, Molecular Reaction Dynamics
S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy
Prerequisites / Notice529-0422-00L Physical Chemistry II: Chemical Reaction Dynamics
529-0434-00LPhysical Chemistry V: Spectroscopy Information W4 credits3GH. J. Wörner
Abstractthermal radiation and Planck's law; transition probabilities, rate equations;
atomic structure and spectra
electronic, vibrational, and rotational spectroscopy of molecules
symmetry, group theory, and selection rules
ObjectiveWhen you successfully finished this course, you are able to analyze and interpret electronic spectra of atoms and rotational, vibrational as well as electronic spectra of molecules.

In particular, you will be able
* to determine the term symbols of the states of atoms, as well as diatomic and polyatomic molecules
* to explain the theoretical steps that are needed to separate the motions of nuclei and electrons (Born-Oppenheimer approximation) as well as rotations and vibrations of the nuclear motion (normal-mode approximation),
* to use group theory as tool in spectroscopy, e.g. to classify rotational modes according to symmetry and predict their spectroscopic activity, to construct symmetry-adapted molecular orbitals, and to use the symmetry of states to derive selection rules of molecules,
* to use a quantum-mechanical picture to explain intensities of vibrational progressions of an electronic spectrum (Franck-Condon factors), and
* to determine selection rules for spectroscopic transitions based on a qualitative evaluation of the dipole matrix element.
ContentBasics:
thermal radiation, Planck's law
transition probabilities
rate equations
Einstein coefficients and lasers

Atomic and molecular spectroscopy:
tools to evaluate the transition matrix elements which describe atomic and molecular spectra quantum-mechanically, in particular
- selection rules and symmetry/group theory
: separation of electrons and nuclei (Born-Oppenheimer approximation)
- separation of vibrations and rotations (normal mode approximation)
and how to use these tools to understand and predict spectra qualitatively
Lecture notesis available on the lecture website
529-0440-00LPhysical Electrochemistry and ElectrocatalysisW6 credits3GT. Schmidt
AbstractFundamentals of electrochemistry, electrochemical electron transfer, electrochemical processes, electrochemical kinetics, electrocatalysis, surface electrochemistry, electrochemical energy conversion processes and introduction into the technologies (e.g., fuel cell, electrolysis), electrochemical methods (e.g., voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy), mass transport.
ObjectiveProviding an overview and in-depth understanding of Fundamentals of electrochemistry, electrochemical electron transfer, electrochemical processes, electrochemical kinetics, electrocatalysis, surface electrochemistry, electrochemical energy conversion processes (fuel cell, electrolysis), electrochemical methods and mass transport during electrochemical reactions. The students will learn about the importance of electrochemical kinetics and its relation to industrial electrochemical processes and in the energy seactor.
ContentReview of electrochemical thermodynamics, description electrochemical kinetics, Butler-Volmer equation, Tafel kinetics, simple electrochemical reactions, electron transfer, Marcus Theory, fundamentals of electrocatalysis, elementary reaction processes, rate-determining steps in electrochemical reactions, practical examples and applications specifically for electrochemical energy conversion processes, introduction to electrochemical methods, mass transport in electrochemical systems. Introduction to fuel cells and electrolysis
Lecture notesWill be handed out during the Semester
LiteraturePhysical Electrochemistry, E. Gileadi, Wiley VCH
Electrochemical Methods, A. Bard/L. Faulkner, Wiley-VCH
Modern Electrochemistry 2A - Fundamentals of Electrodics, J. Bockris, A. Reddy, M. Gamboa-Aldeco, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers
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