Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2022

Physics Master Information
Electives
Electives: Physics and Mathematics
Selection: Quantum Electronics
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
402-0468-15LNanomaterials for Photonics
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1UR. Grange
AbstractThe lecture describes various nanomaterials (semiconductor, metal, dielectric, carbon-based...) for photonic applications (optoelectronics, plasmonics, ordered and disordered structures...). It starts with concepts of light-matter interactions, then the fabrication methods, the optical characterization techniques, the description of the properties and the state-of-the-art applications.
ObjectiveThe students will acquire theoretical and experimental knowledge about the different types of nanomaterials (semiconductors, metals, dielectric, carbon-based, ...) and their uses as building blocks for advanced applications in photonics (optoelectronics, plasmonics, photonic crystal, ...). Together with the exercises, the students will learn (1) to read, summarize and discuss scientific articles related to the lecture, (2) to estimate order of magnitudes with calculations using the theory seen during the lecture, (3) to prepare a short oral presentation and report about one topic related to the lecture, and (4) to imagine an original photonic device.
Content1. Introduction to nanomaterials for photonics
a. Classification of nanomaterials
b. Light-matter interaction at the nanoscale
c. Examples of nanophotonic devices

2. Wave physics for nanophotonics
a. Wavelength, wave equation, wave propagation
b. Dispersion relation
c. Interference
d. Scattering and absorption
e. Coherent and incoherent light

3. Analogies between photons and electrons
a. Quantum wave description
b. How to confine photons and electrons
c. Tunneling effects

4. Characterization of Nanomaterials
a. Optical microscopy: Bright and dark field, fluorescence, confocal, High resolution: PALM (STORM), STED
b. Light scattering techniques: DLS
c. Near field microscopy: SNOM
d. Electron microscopy: SEM, TEM
e. Scanning probe microscopy: STM, AFM
f. X-ray diffraction: XRD, EDS

5. Fabrication of nanomaterials
a. Top-down approach
b. Bottom-up approach

6. Plasmonics
a. What is a plasmon, Drude model
b. Surface plasmon and localized surface plasmon (sphere, rod, shell)
c. Theoretical models to calculate the radiated field: electrostatic approximation and Mie scattering
d. Fabrication of plasmonic structures: Chemical synthesis, Nanofabrication
e. Applications

7. Organic and inorganic nanomaterials
a. Organic quantum-confined structure: nanomers and quantum dots.
b. Carbon nanotubes: properties, bandgap description, fabrication
c. Graphene: motivation, fabrication, devices
d. Nanomarkers for biophotonics

8. Semiconductors
a. Crystalline structure, wave function
b. Quantum well: energy levels equation, confinement
c. Quantum wires, quantum dots
d. Optical properties related to quantum confinement
e. Example of effects: absorption, photoluminescence
f. Solid-state-lasers: edge emitting, surface emitting, quantum cascade

9. Photonic crystals
a. Analogy photonic and electronic crystal, in nature
b. 1D, 2D, 3D photonic crystal
c. Theoretical modelling: frequency and time domain technique
d. Features: band gap, local enhancement, superprism...

10. Nanocomposites
a. Effective medium regime
b. Metamaterials
c. Multiple scattering regime
d. Complex media: structural colour, random lasers, nonlinear disorder
Lecture notesSlides and book chapter will be available for downloading
LiteratureReferences will be given during the lecture
Prerequisites / NoticeBasics of solid-state physics (i.e. energy bands) can help
402-0470-17LOptical Frequency Combs: Physics and Applications
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1UG. Scalari
AbstractIn this lecture, the goal is to review the physics behind mode-locking in these various devices, as well as discuss the most important novelties and applications of the newly developed sources.
ObjectiveIn this lecture, the goal is to review the physics behind mode-locking in these various devices, as well as discuss the most important novelties and applications of the newly developed sources.
ContentSince their invention, the optical frequency combs have shown to be a key technological tool with applications in a variety of fields ranging from astronomy, metrology, spectroscopy and telecommunications. Concomitant with this expansion of the application domains, the range of technologies that have been used to generate optical frequency combs has recently widened to include, beyond the solid-state and fiber mode-locked lasers, optical parametric oscillators, microresonators and quantum cascade lasers.
In this lecture, the goal is to review the physics behind mode-locking in these various devices, as well as discuss the most important novelties and applications of the newly developed sources.

Chapt 1: Fundamentals of optical frequency comb generation
- Physics of mode-locking: time domain picture
Propagation and stability of a pulse, soliton formation
- Dispersion compensation
Solid-state and fiber mode-locked laser
Chapt 2: Direct generation
Microresonator combs: Lugiato-Lefever equation, solitons
Quantum cascade laser: Frequency domain picture of the mode-locking
Mid-infrared and terahertz QCL combs
Chapt 3: Non-linear optics
DFG, OPOs
Chapt 4: Comb diagnostics and noise
Jitter, linewidth
Chapt 5: Self-referenced combs and their applications
Chapt 6: Dual combs and their applications to spectroscopy
402-0498-00LTrapped-Ion PhysicsW6 credits2V + 1UD. Kienzler
AbstractThis course covers the physics of trapped ions at the quantum level described as harmonic oscillators coupled to spin systems, for which the 2012 Nobel prize was awarded. Trapped-ion systems have achieved an extraordinary level of control and provide leading technologies for quantum information processing and quantum metrology.
ObjectiveThe objective is to provide a basis for understanding the wide range of research currently being performed with trapped ion systems: fundamental quantum mechanics with spin-spring systems, quantum information processing and quantum metrology. During the course students would expect to gain an understanding of the current frontier of research in these areas, and the challenges which must be overcome to make further advances. This should provide a solid background for tackling recently published research in these fields, including experimental realisations of quantum information processing using trapped ions.
ContentThis course will cover trapped-ion physics. It aims to cover both theoretical and experimental aspects. In all experimental settings the role of decoherence and the quantum-classical transition is of great importance, and this will therefore form one of the key components of the course. The topics of the course were cited in the Nobel prize which was awarded to David Wineland in 2012.

Topics which will be covered include:
- Fundamental working principles of ion traps and modern trap geometries, quantum description of motion of trapped ions
- Electronic structure of atomic ions, manipulation of the electronic state, Rabi- and Ramsey-techniques, principle of an atomic clock
- Quantum description of the coupling of electronic and motional degrees of freedom
- Laser cooling
- Quantum state engineering of coherent, squeezed, cat, grid and entangled states
- Trapped ion quantum information processing basics and scaling, current challenges
- Quantum metrology with trapped ions: quantum logic spectroscopy, optical clocks, search for physics beyond the standard model using high-precision spectroscopy
LiteratureS. Haroche and J-M. Raimond "Exploring the Quantum" (recommended)
M. Scully and M.S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (recommended)
Prerequisites / NoticeThe preceding attendance of the scheduled lecture Quantum Optics (402-0442-00L) or a comparable course is required.
402-0558-00LCrystal Optics in Intense Light FieldsW6 credits2V + 1UM. Fiebig
AbstractBecause of their aesthetic nature crystals are termed "flowers of mineral kingdom". The aesthetic aspect is closely related to the symmetry of the crystals which in turn determines their optical properties. It is the purpose of this course to stimulate the understanding of these relations with a particular focus on those phenomena occurring in intense light fields as they are provided by lasers.
ObjectiveIn this course students will at first acquire a systematic knowledge of classical crystal-optical phenomena and the experimental and theoretical tools to describe them. This will be the basis for the core part of the lecture in which they will learn how to characterize ferroelectric, (anti)ferromagnetic and other forms of ferroic order and their interaction by nonlinear optical techniques. See also Link.
ContentCrystal classes and their symmetry; basic group theory; optical properties in the absence and presence of external forces; focus on magnetooptical phenomena; density-matrix formalism of light-matter interaction; microscopy of linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities; second harmonic generation (SHG); characterization of ferroic order by SHG; outlook towards other nonlinear optical effects: devices, ultrafast processes, etc.
Lecture notesExtensive material will be provided throughout the lecture.
Literature(1) R. R. Birss, Symmetry and Magnetism, North-Holland (1966)
(2) R. E. Newnham: Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure, Oxford University (2005)
(3) A. K. Zvezdin, V. A. Kotov: Modern Magnetooptics & Magnetooptical Materials, Taylor/Francis (1997)
(4) Y. R. Shen: The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, Wiley (2002)
(5) K. H. Bennemann: Nonlinear Optics in Metals, Oxford University (1999)
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic knowledge in solid state physics and quantum (perturbation) theory will be very useful. The lecture is addressed to students in physics and students in materials science with an affinity to physics.
402-0466-15LQuantum Optics with Photonic Crystals, Plasmonics and MetamaterialsW6 credits2V + 1UG. Scalari
AbstractIn this lecture, we would like to review new developments in the emerging topic of quantum optics in very strongly confined structures, with an emphasis on sources and photon statistics as well as the coupling between optical and mechanical degrees of freedom.
ObjectiveIntegration and miniaturisation have strongly characterised fundamental research and industrial applications in the last decades, both for photonics and electronics.
The objective of this lecture is to provide insight into the most recent solid-state implementations of strong light-matter interaction, from micro and nano cavities to nano lasers and quantum optics. The content of the lecture focuses on the achievement of extremely subwavelength radiation confinement in electronic and optical resonators. Such resonant structures are then functionalized by integrating active elements to achieve devices with extremely reduced dimensions and exceptional performances. Plasmonic lasers, Purcell emitters are discussed as well as ultrastrong light matter coupling and opto-mechanical systems.
Content1. Light confinement
1.1. Photonic crystals
1.1.1. Band structure
1.1.2. Slow light and cavities
1.2. Plasmonics
1.2.1. Light confinement in metallic structures
1.2.2. Metal optics and waveguides
1.2.3. Graphene plasmonics
1.3. Metamaterials
1.3.1. Electric and magnetic response at optical frequencies
1.3.2. Negative index, cloacking, left-handness

2. Light coupling in cavities
2.1. Strong coupling
2.1.1. Polariton formation
2.1.2. Strong and ultra-strong coupling
2.2. Strong coupling in microcavities
2.2.1. Planar cavities, polariton condensation
2.3. Polariton dots
2.3.1. Microcavities
2.3.2. Photonic crystals
2.3.3. Metamaterial-based

3. Photon generation and statistics
3.1. Purcell emitters
3.1.1. Single photon sources
3.1.2. THz emitters
3.2. Microlasers
3.2.1. Plasmonic lasers: where is the limit?
3.2.2. g(1) and g(2) of microlasers
3.3. Optomecanics
3.3.1. Micro ring cavities
3.3.2. Photonic crystals
3.3.3. Superconducting resonators
402-0484-00LExperimental and Theoretical Aspects of Quantum Gases Information W6 credits2V + 1UT. U. Donner, T. Esslinger
AbstractQuantum Gases are the most precisely controlled many-body systems in physics. This provides a unique interface between theory and experiment, which allows addressing fundamental concepts and long-standing questions. This course lays the foundation for the understanding of current research in this vibrant field.
ObjectiveThe lecture conveys a basic understanding for the current research on quantum gases. Emphasis will be put on the connection between theory and experimental observation. It will enable students to read and understand publications in this field.
ContentCooling and trapping of neutral atoms

Bose and Fermi gases

Ultracold collisions

The Bose-condensed state

Elementary excitations

Vortices

Superfluidity

Interference and Correlations

Optical lattices
Lecture notesnotes and material accompanying the lecture will be provided
LiteratureC. J. Pethick and H. Smith, Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute Gases,
Cambridge.
Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics, Vol. CXL,
ed. M. Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C.E. Wieman (IOS Press, Amsterdam,
1999).
402-0444-00LDissipative Quantum SystemsW6 credits2V + 1UA. Imamoglu
AbstractThis course builds up on the material covered in the Quantum Optics course. The emphasis will be on analysis of dissipative quantum systems and quantum optics in condensed-matter systems.
ObjectiveThe course aims to provide the knowledge necessary for pursuing advanced research in the field of Quantum Optics in condensed matter systems. Fundamental concepts and techniques of Quantum Optics will be linked to experimental research in interacting photonic systems.
ContentDescription of open quantum systems using master equation and quantum trajectories. Decoherence and quantum measurements. Dicke superradiance. Dissipative phase transitions. Signatures of electron-exciton and electron-electron interactions in optical response.
Lecture notesLecture notes will be provided
LiteratureC. Cohen-Tannoudji et al., Atom-Photon-Interactions (recommended)
Y. Yamamoto and A. Imamoglu, Mesoscopic Quantum Optics (recommended)
A collection of review articles (will be pointed out during the lecture)
Prerequisites / NoticeMasters level quantum optics knowledge
CompetenciesCompetencies
Subject-specific CompetenciesConcepts and Theoriesassessed
Techniques and Technologiesfostered
Method-specific CompetenciesAnalytical Competenciesassessed
Decision-makingfostered
Media and Digital Technologiesfostered
Problem-solvingassessed
Project Managementfostered
Social CompetenciesCommunicationassessed
Cooperation and Teamworkassessed
Customer Orientationfostered
Leadership and Responsibilityfostered
Self-presentation and Social Influence fostered
Sensitivity to Diversityfostered
Negotiationfostered
Personal CompetenciesAdaptability and Flexibilityfostered
Creative Thinkingassessed
Critical Thinkingassessed
Integrity and Work Ethicsfostered
Self-awareness and Self-reflection fostered
Self-direction and Self-management fostered
402-0486-00LFrontiers of Quantum Gas Research: Few- and Many-Body Physics
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1U
AbstractThe lecture will discuss the most relevant recent research in the field of quantum gases. Bosonic and fermionic quantum gases with emphasis on strong interactions will be studied. The topics include low dimensional systems, optical lattices and quantum simulation, the BEC-BCS crossover and the unitary Fermi gas, transport phenomena, and quantum gases in optical cavities.
ObjectiveThe lecture is intended to convey an advanced understanding for the current research on quantum gases. Emphasis will be put on the connection between theory and experimental observation. It will enable students to follow current publications in this field.
ContentQuantum gases in one and two dimensions
Optical lattices, Hubbard physics and quantum simulation
Strongly interacting Fermions: the BEC-BCS crossover and the unitary Fermi gas
Transport phenomena in ultracold gases
Quantum gases in optical cavities
Lecture notesno script
LiteratureC. J. Pethick and H. Smith, Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute Gases, Cambridge.
T. Giamarchi, Quantum Physics in one dimension
I. Bloch, J. Dalibard, W. Zwerger, Many-body physics with ultracold gases, Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 885 (2008)
Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics, Vol. CLXIV, ed. M. Inguscio, W. Ketterle, and C. Salomon (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 2007).
Additional literature will be distributed during the lecture
Prerequisites / NoticePresumably, Prof. Päivi Törmä from Aalto university in Finland will give part of the course. The exercise classes will be partly in the form of a Journal Club, in which a student presents the achievements of a recent important research paper. More information available on Link
151-0172-00LMicrosystems II: Devices and Applications Information W6 credits3V + 3UC. Hierold, C. I. Roman
AbstractThe students are introduced to the fundamentals and physics of microelectronic devices as well as to microsystems in general (MEMS). They will be able to apply this knowledge for system research and development and to assess and apply principles, concepts and methods from a broad range of technical and scientific disciplines for innovative products.
ObjectiveThe students are introduced to the fundamentals and physics of microelectronic devices as well as to microsystems in general (MEMS), basic electronic circuits for sensors, RF-MEMS, chemical microsystems, BioMEMS and microfluidics, magnetic sensors and optical devices, and in particular to the concepts of Nanosystems (focus on carbon nanotubes), based on the respective state-of-research in the field. They will be able to apply this knowledge for system research and development and to assess and apply principles, concepts and methods from a broad range of technical and scientific disciplines for innovative products.

During the weekly 3 hour module on Mondays dedicated to Übungen the students will learn the basics of Comsol Multiphysics and utilize this software to simulate MEMS devices to understand their operation more deeply and optimize their designs.
ContentTransducer fundamentals and test structures
Pressure sensors and accelerometers
Resonators and gyroscopes
RF MEMS
Acoustic transducers and energy harvesters
Thermal transducers and energy harvesters
Optical and magnetic transducers
Chemical sensors and biosensors, microfluidics and bioMEMS
Nanosystem concepts
Basic electronic circuits for sensors and microsystems
Lecture notesHandouts (on-line)
402-0414-00LStrongly Correlated Many-Body Systems: From Electrons to Ultracold Atoms to Photons
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1UA. Imamoglu, E. Demler
AbstractThis course covers the physics of strongly correlated systems that emerge in diverse platforms, ranging from two-dimensional electrons, through ultracold atoms in atomic lattices, to photons.
ObjectiveThe goal of the lecture is to prepare the students for research in strongly correlated systems currently investigated in vastly different physical platforms.
ContentFeshbach resonances, Bose & Fermi polarons, Anderson impurity model and the s-d Hamiltonian, Kondo effect, quantum magnetism, cavity-QED, probing noise in strongly correlated systems, variational non-Gaussian approach to interacting many-body systems.
Lecture notesHand-written lecture notes will be distributed.
Prerequisites / NoticeKnowledge of Quantum Mechanics at the level of QM II and exposure to Solid State Theory.
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