# Suchergebnis: Katalogdaten im Herbstsemester 2021

Rechnergestützte Wissenschaften Master | ||||||

Vertiefungsgebiete | ||||||

Biologie | ||||||

Nummer | Titel | Typ | ECTS | Umfang | Dozierende | |
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636-0007-00L | Computational Systems Biology | W | 6 KP | 3V + 2U | J. Stelling | |

Kurzbeschreibung | Study of fundamental concepts, models and computational methods for the analysis of complex biological networks. Topics: Systems approaches in biology, biology and reaction network fundamentals, modeling and simulation approaches (topological, probabilistic, stoichiometric, qualitative, linear / nonlinear ODEs, stochastic), and systems analysis (complexity reduction, stability, identification). | |||||

Lernziel | The aim of this course is to provide an introductory overview of mathematical and computational methods for the modeling, simulation and analysis of biological networks. | |||||

Inhalt | Biology has witnessed an unprecedented increase in experimental data and, correspondingly, an increased need for computational methods to analyze this data. The explosion of sequenced genomes, and subsequently, of bioinformatics methods for the storage, analysis and comparison of genetic sequences provides a prominent example. Recently, however, an additional area of research, captured by the label "Systems Biology", focuses on how networks, which are more than the mere sum of their parts' properties, establish biological functions. This is essentially a task of reverse engineering. The aim of this course is to provide an introductory overview of corresponding computational methods for the modeling, simulation and analysis of biological networks. We will start with an introduction into the basic units, functions and design principles that are relevant for biology at the level of individual cells. Making extensive use of example systems, the course will then focus on methods and algorithms that allow for the investigation of biological networks with increasing detail. These include (i) graph theoretical approaches for revealing large-scale network organization, (ii) probabilistic (Bayesian) network representations, (iii) structural network analysis based on reaction stoichiometries, (iv) qualitative methods for dynamic modeling and simulation (Boolean and piece-wise linear approaches), (v) mechanistic modeling using ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and finally (vi) stochastic simulation methods. | |||||

Skript | Link | |||||

Literatur | U. Alon, An introduction to systems biology. Chapman & Hall / CRC, 2006. Z. Szallasi et al. (eds.), System modeling in cellular biology. MIT Press, 2010. B. Ingalls, Mathematical modeling in systems biology: an introduction. MIT Press, 2013 | |||||

636-0017-00L | Computational Biology | W | 6 KP | 3G + 2A | T. Vaughan | |

Kurzbeschreibung | The aim of the course is to provide up-to-date knowledge on how we can study biological processes using genetic sequencing data. Computational algorithms extracting biological information from genetic sequence data are discussed, and statistical tools to understand this information in detail are introduced. | |||||

Lernziel | Attendees will learn which information is contained in genetic sequencing data and how to extract information from this data using computational tools. The main concepts introduced are: * stochastic models in molecular evolution * phylogenetic & phylodynamic inference * maximum likelihood and Bayesian statistics Attendees will apply these concepts to a number of applications yielding biological insight into: * epidemiology * pathogen evolution * macroevolution of species | |||||

Inhalt | The course consists of four parts. We first introduce modern genetic sequencing technology, and algorithms to obtain sequence alignments from the output of the sequencers. We then present methods for direct alignment analysis using approaches such as BLAST and GWAS. Second, we introduce mechanisms and concepts of molecular evolution, i.e. we discuss how genetic sequences change over time. Third, we employ evolutionary concepts to infer ancestral relationships between organisms based on their genetic sequences, i.e. we discuss methods to infer genealogies and phylogenies. Lastly, we introduce the field of phylodynamics, the aim of which is to understand and quantify population dynamic processes (such as transmission in epidemiology or speciation & extinction in macroevolution) based on a phylogeny. Throughout the class, the models and methods are illustrated on different datasets giving insight into the epidemiology and evolution of a range of infectious diseases (e.g. HIV, HCV, influenza, Ebola). Applications of the methods to the field of macroevolution provide insight into the evolution and ecology of different species clades. Students will be trained in the algorithms and their application both on paper and in silico as part of the exercises. | |||||

Skript | Lecture slides will be available on moodle. | |||||

Literatur | The course is not based on any of the textbooks below, but they are excellent choices as accompanying material: * Yang, Z. 2006. Computational Molecular Evolution. * Felsenstein, J. 2004. Inferring Phylogenies. * Semple, C. & Steel, M. 2003. Phylogenetics. * Drummond, A. & Bouckaert, R. 2015. Bayesian evolutionary analysis with BEAST. | |||||

Voraussetzungen / Besonderes | Basic knowledge in linear algebra, analysis, and statistics will be helpful. Programming in R will be required for the project work (compulsory continuous performance assessments). We provide an R tutorial and help sessions during the first two weeks of class to learn the required skills. However, in case you do not have any previous experience with R, we strongly recommend to get familiar with R prior to the semester start. For the D-BSSE students, we highly recommend the voluntary course „Introduction to Programming“, which takes place at D-BSSE from Wednesday, September 12 to Friday, September 14, i.e. BEFORE the official semester starting date Link For the Zurich-based students without R experience, we recommend the R course Link, or working through the script provided as part of this R course. | |||||

636-0706-00L | Spatio-Temporal Modelling in Biology | W | 4 KP | 3G | D. Iber | |

Kurzbeschreibung | This course focuses on modeling spatio-temporal problems in biology, in particular on the cell and tissue level. The main focus is on mechanisms and concepts, but mathematical and numerical techniques are introduced as required. Biological examples discussed in the course provide an introduction to key concepts in developmental biology. | |||||

Lernziel | Students will learn state-of-the-art approaches to modelling spatial effects in dynamical biological systems. The course provides an introduction to dynamical system, and covers the mathematical analysis of pattern formation in growing, developing systems, as well as the description of mechanical effects at the cell and tissue level. The course also provides an introduction to image-based modelling, i.e. the use of microscopy data for model development and testing. The course covers classic as well as current approaches and exposes students to open problems in the field. In this way, the course seeks to prepare students to conduct research in the field. The course prepares students for research in developmental biology, as well as for applications in tissue engineering, and for biomedical research. | |||||

Inhalt | 1. Introduction to Modelling in Biology 2. Morphogen Gradients 3. Dynamical Systems 4. Cell-cell Signalling (Dr Boareto) 5. Travelling Waves 6. Turing Patterns 7. Chemotaxis 8. Mathematical Description of Growing Biological Systems 9. Image-Based Modelling 10. Tissue Mechanics 11. Cell-based Tissue Simulation Frameworks 12. Plant Development (Dr Dumont) 13. Growth Control 14. Summary | |||||

Skript | All lecture material will be made available online Link | |||||

Literatur | The lecture course is not based on any textbook. The following textbooks are related to some of its content. The textbooks may be of interest for further reading, but are not necessary to follow the course: Murray, Mathematical Biology, Springer Forgacs and Newman, Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo, CUP Keener and Sneyd, Mathematical Physiology, Springer Fall et al, Computational Cell Biology, Springer Szallasi et al, System Modeling in Cellular Biology, MIT Press Wolkenhauer, Systems Biology Kreyszig, Engineering Mathematics, Wiley | |||||

Voraussetzungen / Besonderes | The course is self-contained. The course assumes no background in biology but a good foundation regarding mathematical and computational techniques. | |||||

227-0421-00L | Deep Learning in Artificial and Biological Neuronal Networks | W | 4 KP | 3G | B. Grewe | |

Kurzbeschreibung | Deep-Learning (DL) a brain-inspired weak for of AI allows training of large artificial neuronal networks (ANNs) that, like humans, can learn real-world tasks such as recognizing objects in images. However, DL is far from being understood and investigating learning in biological networks might serve again as a compelling inspiration to think differently about state-of-the-art ANN training methods. | |||||

Lernziel | The main goal of this lecture is to provide a comprehensive overview into the learning principles neuronal networks as well as to introduce a diverse skill set (e.g. simulating a spiking neuronal network) that is required to understand learning in large, hierarchical neuronal networks. To achieve this the lectures and exercises will merge ideas, concepts and methods from machine learning and neuroscience. These will include training basic ANNs, simulating spiking neuronal networks as well as being able to read and understand the main ideas presented in today’s neuroscience papers. After this course students will be able to: - read and understand the main ideas and methods that are presented in today’s neuroscience papers - explain the basic ideas and concepts of plasticity in the mammalian brain - implement alternative ANN learning algorithms to ‘error backpropagation’ in order to train deep neuronal networks. - use a diverse set of ANN regularization methods to improve learning - simulate spiking neuronal networks that learn simple (e.g. digit classification) tasks in a supervised manner. | |||||

Inhalt | Deep-learning a brain-inspired weak form of AI allows training of large artificial neuronal networks (ANNs) that, like humans, can learn real-world tasks such as recognizing objects in images. The origins of deep hierarchical learning can be traced back to early neuroscience research by Hubel and Wiesel in the 1960s, who first described the neuronal processing of visual inputs in the mammalian neocortex. Similar to their neocortical counterparts ANNs seem to learn by interpreting and structuring the data provided by the external world. However, while on specific tasks such as playing (video) games deep ANNs outperform humans (Minh et al, 2015, Silver et al., 2018), ANNs are still not performing on par when it comes to recognizing actions in movie data and their ability to act as generalizable problem solvers is still far behind of what the human brain seems to achieve effortlessly. Moreover, biological neuronal networks can learn far more effectively with fewer training examples, they achieve a much higher performance in recognizing complex patterns in time series data (e.g. recognizing actions in movies), they dynamically adapt to new tasks without losing performance and they achieve unmatched performance to detect and integrate out-of-domain data examples (data they have not been trained with). In other words, many of the big challenges and unknowns that have emerged in the field of deep learning over the last years are already mastered exceptionally well by biological neuronal networks in our brain. On the other hand, many facets of typical ANN design and training algorithms seem biologically implausible, such as the non-local weight updates, discrete processing of time, and scalar communication between neurons. Recent evidence suggests that learning in biological systems is the result of the complex interplay of diverse error feedback signaling processes acting at multiple scales, ranging from single synapses to entire networks. | |||||

Skript | The lecture slides will be provided as a PDF after each lecture. | |||||

Voraussetzungen / Besonderes | This advanced level lecture requires some basic background in machine/deep learning. Thus, students are expected to have a basic mathematical foundation, including linear algebra, multivariate calculus, and probability. The course is not to be meant as an extended tutorial of how to train deep networks in PyTorch or Tensorflow, although these tools used. The participation in the course is subject to the following conditions: 1) The number of participants is limited to 120 students (MSc and PhDs). 2) Students must have taken the exam in Deep Learning (263-3210-00L) or have acquired equivalent knowledge. | |||||

227-1037-00L | Introduction to Neuroinformatics | W | 6 KP | 2V + 1U + 1A | V. Mante, M. Cook, B. Grewe, G. Indiveri, D. Kiper, W. von der Behrens | |

Kurzbeschreibung | The course provides an introduction to the functional properties of neurons. Particularly the description of membrane electrical properties (action potentials, channels), neuronal anatomy, synaptic structures, and neuronal networks. Simple models of computation, learning, and behavior will be explained. Some artificial systems (robot, chip) are presented. | |||||

Lernziel | Understanding computation by neurons and neuronal circuits is one of the great challenges of science. Many different disciplines can contribute their tools and concepts to solving mysteries of neural computation. The goal of this introductory course is to introduce the monocultures of physics, maths, computer science, engineering, biology, psychology, and even philosophy and history, to discover the enchantments and challenges that we all face in taking on this major 21st century problem and how each discipline can contribute to discovering solutions. | |||||

Inhalt | This course considers the structure and function of biological neural networks at different levels. The function of neural networks lies fundamentally in their wiring and in the electro-chemical properties of nerve cell membranes. Thus, the biological structure of the nerve cell needs to be understood if biologically-realistic models are to be constructed. These simpler models are used to estimate the electrical current flow through dendritic cables and explore how a more complex geometry of neurons influences this current flow. The active properties of nerves are studied to understand both sensory transduction and the generation and transmission of nerve impulses along axons. The concept of local neuronal circuits arises in the context of the rules governing the formation of nerve connections and topographic projections within the nervous system. Communication between neurons in the network can be thought of as information flow across synapses, which can be modified by experience. We need an understanding of the action of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, so that the dynamics and logic of synapses can be interpreted. Finally, the neural architectures of feedforward and recurrent networks will be discussed in the context of co-ordination, control, and integration of sensory and motor information in neural networks. | |||||

551-1299-00L | Introduction to Bioinformatics | W | 6 KP | 4G | S. Sunagawa, M. Gstaiger, A. Kahles, G. Rätsch, B. Snijder, E. Vayena, C. von Mering, N. Zamboni | |

Kurzbeschreibung | This course introduces principle concepts, the state-of-the-art and methods used in some major fields of Bioinformatics. Topics include: genomics, metagenomics, network bioinformatics, and imaging. Lectures are accompanied by practical exercises that involve the use of common bioinformatic methods and basic programming. | |||||

Lernziel | The course will provide students with theoretical background in the area of genomics, metagenomics, network bioinformatics and imaging. In addition, students will acquire basic skills in applying modern methods that are used in these sub-disciplines of Bioinformatics. Students will be able to access and analyse DNA sequence information, construct and interpret networks that emerge though interactions of e.g. genes/proteins, and extract information based on computer-assisted image data analysis. Students will also be able to assess the ethical implications of access to and generation of new and large amounts of information as they relate to the identifiability of a person and the ownership of data. | |||||

Inhalt | Ethics: Case studies to learn about applying ethical principles in human genomics research Genomics: Genetic variant calling Analysis and critical evaluation of genome wide association studies Metagenomics: Reconstruction of microbial genomes Microbial community compositional analysis Quantitative metagenomics Network bioinformatics: Inference of molecular networks Use of networks for interpretation of (gen)omics data Imaging: High throughput single cell imaging Image segmentation Automatic analysis of drug effects on single cell suspension (chemotyping) | |||||

Voraussetzungen / Besonderes | Course participants have already acquired basic programming skills in Python and R. Students will bring and work on their own laptop computers, preferentially running the latest versions of Windows or MacOSX. |

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