# Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2021

Physics Master | ||||||

Electives | ||||||

Electives: Physics and Mathematics | ||||||

Selection: Quantum Electronics | ||||||

Number | Title | Type | ECTS | Hours | Lecturers | |
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402-0468-15L | Nanomaterials for Photonics | W | 6 credits | 2V + 1U | R. Grange, R. Savo | |

Abstract | The lecture describes various nanomaterials (semiconductor, metal, dielectric, carbon-based...) for photonic applications (optoelectronics, plasmonics, ordered and disordered structures...). It starts with concepts of light-matter interactions, then the fabrication methods, the optical characterization techniques, the description of the properties and the state-of-the-art applications. | |||||

Objective | The students will acquire theoretical and experimental knowledge about the different types of nanomaterials (semiconductors, metals, dielectric, carbon-based, ...) and their uses as building blocks for advanced applications in photonics (optoelectronics, plasmonics, photonic crystal, ...). Together with the exercises, the students will learn (1) to read, summarize and discuss scientific articles related to the lecture, (2) to estimate order of magnitudes with calculations using the theory seen during the lecture, (3) to prepare a short oral presentation and report about one topic related to the lecture, and (4) to imagine an original photonic device. | |||||

Content | 1. Introduction to nanomaterials for photonics a. Classification of nanomaterials b. Light-matter interaction at the nanoscale c. Examples of nanophotonic devices 2. Wave physics for nanophotonics a. Wavelength, wave equation, wave propagation b. Dispersion relation c. Interference d. Scattering and absorption e. Coherent and incoherent light 3. Analogies between photons and electrons a. Quantum wave description b. How to confine photons and electrons c. Tunneling effects 4. Characterization of Nanomaterials a. Optical microscopy: Bright and dark field, fluorescence, confocal, High resolution: PALM (STORM), STED b. Light scattering techniques: DLS c. Near field microscopy: SNOM d. Electron microscopy: SEM, TEM e. Scanning probe microscopy: STM, AFM f. X-ray diffraction: XRD, EDS 5. Fabrication of nanomaterials a. Top-down approach b. Bottom-up approach 6. Plasmonics a. What is a plasmon, Drude model b. Surface plasmon and localized surface plasmon (sphere, rod, shell) c. Theoretical models to calculate the radiated field: electrostatic approximation and Mie scattering d. Fabrication of plasmonic structures: Chemical synthesis, Nanofabrication e. Applications 7. Organic and inorganic nanomaterials a. Organic quantum-confined structure: nanomers and quantum dots. b. Carbon nanotubes: properties, bandgap description, fabrication c. Graphene: motivation, fabrication, devices d. Nanomarkers for biophotonics 8. Semiconductors a. Crystalline structure, wave function b. Quantum well: energy levels equation, confinement c. Quantum wires, quantum dots d. Optical properties related to quantum confinement e. Example of effects: absorption, photoluminescence f. Solid-state-lasers: edge emitting, surface emitting, quantum cascade 9. Photonic crystals a. Analogy photonic and electronic crystal, in nature b. 1D, 2D, 3D photonic crystal c. Theoretical modelling: frequency and time domain technique d. Features: band gap, local enhancement, superprism... 10. Nanocomposites a. Effective medium regime b. Metamaterials c. Multiple scattering regime d. Complex media: structural colour, random lasers, nonlinear disorder | |||||

Lecture notes | Slides and book chapter will be available for downloading | |||||

Literature | References will be given during the lecture | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | Basics of solid-state physics (i.e. energy bands) can help | |||||

402-0470-17L | Optical Frequency Combs: Physics and ApplicationsDoes not take place this semester. | W | 6 credits | 2V + 1U | G. Scalari, J. Faist | |

Abstract | In this lecture, the goal is to review the physics behind mode-locking in these various devices, as well as discuss the most important novelties and applications of the newly developed sources. | |||||

Objective | In this lecture, the goal is to review the physics behind mode-locking in these various devices, as well as discuss the most important novelties and applications of the newly developed sources. | |||||

Content | Since their invention, the optical frequency combs have shown to be a key technological tool with applications in a variety of fields ranging from astronomy, metrology, spectroscopy and telecommunications. Concomitant with this expansion of the application domains, the range of technologies that have been used to generate optical frequency combs has recently widened to include, beyond the solid-state and fiber mode-locked lasers, optical parametric oscillators, microresonators and quantum cascade lasers. In this lecture, the goal is to review the physics behind mode-locking in these various devices, as well as discuss the most important novelties and applications of the newly developed sources. Chapt 1: Fundamentals of optical frequency comb generation - Physics of mode-locking: time domain picture Propagation and stability of a pulse, soliton formation - Dispersion compensation Solid-state and fiber mode-locked laser Chapt 2: Direct generation Microresonator combs: Lugiato-Lefever equation, solitons Quantum cascade laser: Frequency domain picture of the mode-locking Mid-infrared and terahertz QCL combs Chapt 3: Non-linear optics DFG, OPOs Chapt 4: Comb diagnostics and noise Jitter, linewidth Chapt 5: Self-referenced combs and their applications Chapt 6: Dual combs and their applications to spectroscopy | |||||

402-0498-00L | Trapped-Ion Physics | W | 6 credits | 2V + 1U | D. Kienzler | |

Abstract | This course covers the physics of trapped ions at the quantum level described as harmonic oscillators coupled to spin systems, for which the 2012 Nobel prize was awarded. Trapped-ion systems have achieved an extraordinary level of control and provide leading technologies for quantum information processing and quantum metrology. | |||||

Objective | The objective is to provide a basis for understanding the wide range of research currently being performed with trapped ion systems: fundamental quantum mechanics with spin-spring systems, quantum information processing and quantum metrology. During the course students would expect to gain an understanding of the current frontier of research in these areas, and the challenges which must be overcome to make further advances. This should provide a solid background for tackling recently published research in these fields, including experimental realisations of quantum information processing using trapped ions. | |||||

Content | This course will cover trapped-ion physics. It aims to cover both theoretical and experimental aspects. In all experimental settings the role of decoherence and the quantum-classical transition is of great importance, and this will therefore form one of the key components of the course. The topics of the course were cited in the Nobel prize which was awarded to David Wineland in 2012. Topics which will be covered include: - Fundamental working principles of ion traps and modern trap geometries, quantum description of motion of trapped ions - Electronic structure of atomic ions, manipulation of the electronic state, Rabi- and Ramsey-techniques, principle of an atomic clock - Quantum description of the coupling of electronic and motional degrees of freedom - Laser cooling - Quantum state engineering of coherent, squeezed, cat, grid and entangled states - Trapped ion quantum information processing basics and scaling, current challenges - Quantum metrology with trapped ions: quantum logic spectroscopy, optical clocks, search for physics beyond the standard model using high-precision spectroscopy | |||||

Literature | S. Haroche and J-M. Raimond "Exploring the Quantum" (recommended) M. Scully and M.S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (recommended) | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | The preceding attendance of the scheduled lecture Quantum Optics (402-0442-00L) or a comparable course is required. | |||||

402-0558-00L | Crystal Optics in Intense Light Fields | W | 6 credits | 2V + 1U | M. Fiebig | |

Abstract | Because of their aesthetic nature crystals are termed "flowers of mineral kingdom". The aesthetic aspect is closely related to the symmetry of the crystals which in turn determines their optical properties. It is the purpose of this course to stimulate the understanding of these relations with a particular focus on those phenomena occurring in intense light fields as they are provided by lasers. | |||||

Objective | In this course students will at first acquire a systematic knowledge of classical crystal-optical phenomena and the experimental and theoretical tools to describe them. This will be the basis for the core part of the lecture in which they will learn how to characterize ferroelectric, (anti)ferromagnetic and other forms of ferroic order and their interaction by nonlinear optical techniques. See also Link. | |||||

Content | Crystal classes and their symmetry; basic group theory; optical properties in the absence and presence of external forces; focus on magnetooptical phenomena; density-matrix formalism of light-matter interaction; microscopy of linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities; second harmonic generation (SHG); characterization of ferroic order by SHG; outlook towards other nonlinear optical effects: devices, ultrafast processes, etc. | |||||

Lecture notes | Extensive material will be provided throughout the lecture. | |||||

Literature | (1) R. R. Birss, Symmetry and Magnetism, North-Holland (1966) (2) R. E. Newnham: Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure, Oxford University (2005) (3) A. K. Zvezdin, V. A. Kotov: Modern Magnetooptics & Magnetooptical Materials, Taylor/Francis (1997) (4) Y. R. Shen: The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, Wiley (2002) (5) K. H. Bennemann: Nonlinear Optics in Metals, Oxford University (1999) | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | Basic knowledge in solid state physics and quantum (perturbation) theory will be very useful. The lecture is addressed to students in physics and students in materials science with an affinity to physics. | |||||

402-0466-15L | Quantum Optics with Photonic Crystals, Plasmonics and Metamaterials | W | 6 credits | 2V + 1U | G. Scalari | |

Abstract | In this lecture, we would like to review new developments in the emerging topic of quantum optics in very strongly confined structures, with an emphasis on sources and photon statistics as well as the coupling between optical and mechanical degrees of freedom. | |||||

Objective | Integration and miniaturisation have strongly characterised fundamental research and industrial applications in the last decades, both for photonics and electronics. The objective of this lecture is to provide insight into the most recent solid-state implementations of strong light-matter interaction, from micro and nano cavities to nano lasers and quantum optics. The content of the lecture focuses on the achievement of extremely subwavelength radiation confinement in electronic and optical resonators. Such resonant structures are then functionalized by integrating active elements to achieve devices with extremely reduced dimensions and exceptional performances. Plasmonic lasers, Purcell emitters are discussed as well as ultrastrong light matter coupling and opto-mechanical systems. | |||||

Content | 1. Light confinement 1.1. Photonic crystals 1.1.1. Band structure 1.1.2. Slow light and cavities 1.2. Plasmonics 1.2.1. Light confinement in metallic structures 1.2.2. Metal optics and waveguides 1.2.3. Graphene plasmonics 1.3. Metamaterials 1.3.1. Electric and magnetic response at optical frequencies 1.3.2. Negative index, cloacking, left-handness 2. Light coupling in cavities 2.1. Strong coupling 2.1.1. Polariton formation 2.1.2. Strong and ultra-strong coupling 2.2. Strong coupling in microcavities 2.2.1. Planar cavities, polariton condensation 2.3. Polariton dots 2.3.1. Microcavities 2.3.2. Photonic crystals 2.3.3. Metamaterial-based 3. Photon generation and statistics 3.1. Purcell emitters 3.1.1. Single photon sources 3.1.2. THz emitters 3.2. Microlasers 3.2.1. Plasmonic lasers: where is the limit? 3.2.2. g(1) and g(2) of microlasers 3.3. Optomecanics 3.3.1. Micro ring cavities 3.3.2. Photonic crystals 3.3.3. Superconducting resonators | |||||

402-0484-00L | Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Quantum Gases Does not take place this semester. | W | 6 credits | 2V + 1U | T. Esslinger | |

Abstract | Quantum Gases are the most precisely controlled many-body systems in physics. This provides a unique interface between theory and experiment, which allows addressing fundamental concepts and long-standing questions. This course lays the foundation for the understanding of current research in this vibrant field. | |||||

Objective | The lecture conveys a basic understanding for the current research on quantum gases. Emphasis will be put on the connection between theory and experimental observation. It will enable students to read and understand publications in this field. | |||||

Content | Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms Bose and Fermi gases Ultracold collisions The Bose-condensed state Elementary excitations Vortices Superfluidity Interference and Correlations Optical lattices | |||||

Lecture notes | notes and material accompanying the lecture will be provided | |||||

Literature | C. J. Pethick and H. Smith, Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute Gases, Cambridge. Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics, Vol. CXL, ed. M. Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C.E. Wieman (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1999). | |||||

402-0444-00L | Advanced Quantum OpticsDoes not take place this semester. | W | 6 credits | 2V + 1U | A. Imamoglu | |

Abstract | This course builds up on the material covered in the Quantum Optics course. The emphasis will be on quantum optics in condensed-matter systems. | |||||

Objective | The course aims to provide the knowledge necessary for pursuing advanced research in the field of Quantum Optics in condensed matter systems. Fundamental concepts and techniques of Quantum Optics will be linked to experimental research in systems such as quantum dots, exciton-polaritons, quantum Hall fluids and two-dimensional materials. | |||||

Content | Description of open quantum systems using master equation and quantum trajectories. Decoherence and quantum measurements. Dicke superradiance. Dissipative phase transitions. Signatures of electron-exciton and electron-electron interactions in optical response. | |||||

Lecture notes | Lecture notes will be provided | |||||

Literature | C. Cohen-Tannoudji et al., Atom-Photon-Interactions (recommended) Y. Yamamoto and A. Imamoglu, Mesoscopic Quantum Optics (recommended) A collection of review articles (will be pointed out during the lecture) | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | Masters level quantum optics knowledge | |||||

402-0486-00L | Frontiers of Quantum Gas Research: Few- and Many-Body PhysicsDoes not take place this semester. | W | 6 credits | 2V + 1U | ||

Abstract | The lecture will discuss the most relevant recent research in the field of quantum gases. Bosonic and fermionic quantum gases with emphasis on strong interactions will be studied. The topics include low dimensional systems, optical lattices and quantum simulation, the BEC-BCS crossover and the unitary Fermi gas, transport phenomena, and quantum gases in optical cavities. | |||||

Objective | The lecture is intended to convey an advanced understanding for the current research on quantum gases. Emphasis will be put on the connection between theory and experimental observation. It will enable students to follow current publications in this field. | |||||

Content | Quantum gases in one and two dimensions Optical lattices, Hubbard physics and quantum simulation Strongly interacting Fermions: the BEC-BCS crossover and the unitary Fermi gas Transport phenomena in ultracold gases Quantum gases in optical cavities | |||||

Lecture notes | no script | |||||

Literature | C. J. Pethick and H. Smith, Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute Gases, Cambridge. T. Giamarchi, Quantum Physics in one dimension I. Bloch, J. Dalibard, W. Zwerger, Many-body physics with ultracold gases, Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 885 (2008) Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics, Vol. CLXIV, ed. M. Inguscio, W. Ketterle, and C. Salomon (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 2007). Additional literature will be distributed during the lecture | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | Presumably, Prof. Päivi Törmä from Aalto university in Finland will give part of the course. The exercise classes will be partly in the form of a Journal Club, in which a student presents the achievements of a recent important research paper. More information available on Link | |||||

151-0172-00L | Microsystems II: Devices and Applications | W | 6 credits | 3V + 3U | C. Hierold, C. I. Roman | |

Abstract | The students are introduced to the fundamentals and physics of microelectronic devices as well as to microsystems in general (MEMS). They will be able to apply this knowledge for system research and development and to assess and apply principles, concepts and methods from a broad range of technical and scientific disciplines for innovative products. | |||||

Objective | The students are introduced to the fundamentals and physics of microelectronic devices as well as to microsystems in general (MEMS), basic electronic circuits for sensors, RF-MEMS, chemical microsystems, BioMEMS and microfluidics, magnetic sensors and optical devices, and in particular to the concepts of Nanosystems (focus on carbon nanotubes), based on the respective state-of-research in the field. They will be able to apply this knowledge for system research and development and to assess and apply principles, concepts and methods from a broad range of technical and scientific disciplines for innovative products. During the weekly 3 hour module on Mondays dedicated to Übungen the students will learn the basics of Comsol Multiphysics and utilize this software to simulate MEMS devices to understand their operation more deeply and optimize their designs. | |||||

Content | Transducer fundamentals and test structures Pressure sensors and accelerometers Resonators and gyroscopes RF MEMS Acoustic transducers and energy harvesters Thermal transducers and energy harvesters Optical and magnetic transducers Chemical sensors and biosensors, microfluidics and bioMEMS Nanosystem concepts Basic electronic circuits for sensors and microsystems | |||||

Lecture notes | Handouts (on-line) | |||||

402-0414-00L | Strongly Correlated Many-Body Systems: From Electrons to Ultracold Atoms to Photons | W | 6 credits | 2V + 1U | A. Imamoglu, E. Demler | |

Abstract | This course covers the physics of strongly correlated systems that emerge in diverse platforms, ranging from two-dimensional electrons, through ultracold atoms in atomic lattices, to photons. | |||||

Objective | The goal of the lecture is to prepare the students for research in strongly correlated systems currently investigated in vastly different physical platforms. | |||||

Content | Feshbach resonances, Bose & Fermi polarons, Anderson impurity model and the s-d Hamiltonian, Kondo effect, quantum magnetism, cavity-QED, probing noise in strongly correlated systems, variational non-Gaussian approach to interacting many-body systems. | |||||

Lecture notes | Hand-written lecture notes will be distributed. | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | Knowledge of Quantum Mechanics at the level of QM II and exposure to Solid State Theory. |

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