Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2019

Public Policy Bachelor Information
Bachelor Studies (Programme Regulations 2018)
2. Semester
Core Courses
Core Courses First Year Examinations
Examination Block 1
Students are free to take the exam either in German or in French. They may choose between 853-0050-00L Introduction to Public Law (German) or 851-0712-00L Introduction to Public Law (French)
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
853-0050-00LIntroduction to Public Law Restricted registration - show details W3 credits2VA. Mächler
AbstractStudents will be introduced to Swiss public law by means of specific topics of Swiss Constitutional Law, Administrative Law and Administrative Procedural Law. Precedents of the Swiss Federal Tribunal and other authorities serve as orientation points.
ObjectiveSudents should become
- conversant in the key features of Swiss public law, and
- capable of resolving straightforward problems by applying Swiss Constitutional Law, Administrative Law and Administrative Procedural Law.
ContentThe course provides an overview on the key features of Swiss public law. By means of precedents of the Swiss Federal Tribunal and other authorities, of key principles and of practical cases the following matters will be addressed:

- Key features of Constitutional and Administrative Law
- Sources of law
- Organisational set up and powers of the core authorities of the Confederation
- Confederation
- Human rights and other basic rights
- Principles of due process of law
- Administrative instruments
- Federal staff regulations
- Taxation/Levies
- Principles of the Administrative Procedural Law
- Remedies to the Federal Tribunal.
Lecture notesAvailable.
Literature- Häfelin Ulrich/Müller Georg/Uhlmann Felix, Allgemeines Verwaltungsrecht, 7. Aufl., Zürich/St. Gallen 2016;
- Biaggini Giovanni/Gächter Thomas/Kiener Regina (Hrsg.), Staatsrecht der Schweiz, 2. Aufl., Zürich/St. Gallen 2015.

Participants are kindly requested to bring along a compendium of the most important Acts of (Swiss) public law. Recommended is Biaggini Giovanni/Ehrenzeller Bernhard (Hrsg.), Öffentliches Recht, Studienausgabe, 8. Aufl., Zürich 2017.


Additional material will be distributed during the course.
Prerequisites / Notice--
851-0712-00LIntroduction to Public Law (French)W2 credits2VY. Nicole
AbstractThe course Public Law focuses on the fundamental concepts of constitutional law and constitutional and statutory principles of administrative law. The course also touches upon selected topics of administrative law, including the legal regulation of land use, zoning and planning, and construction law.
ObjectiveEnseignement des principes du droit, en particulier du droit privé et du droit public. Introduction au droit.
ContentLe cours de droit civil porte notamment sur le droit des obligations (droit des contrats et responsabilité civile) et sur les droits réels (propriété, gages et servitudes).De plus, il est donné un bref aperçu du droit de la procédure et de l’exécution forcée. Le cours de droit public traite du droit constitutionnel et du droit administratif, avec un accent particulier sur le droit des constructions et de l’aménagement du territoire, ainsi que sur le droit de l’environnement.
LiteratureEditions officielles des lois fédérales, en langue française ou italienne, disponibles auprès de la plupart des librairies.

Sont indispensables:
- en hiver: le Code civil et le Code des obligations;
- en été: la Constitution fédérale et la loi fédérale sur l’aménagement du territoire ainsi que la loi fédérale sur la protection de l’environnement.

Sont conseillés:
- Nef, Urs Ch.: Le droit des obligations à l'usage des ingénieurs et des architectes, trad. Bovay, J., éd. Payot, Lausanne 1992
- Scyboz, G. et. Gilliéron, P.-R., éd.: Edition annotée du Code civil et du Code des obligations, Payot, Lausanne 1999
- Boillod, J.-P.: Manuel de droit, éd Slatkine, Genève 1999
- Biasio, G./Foglia, A.: Introduzione ai codici di diritto privato svizzero, ed. Giappichelli, Torino 1999
Prerequisites / NoticeLe cours de droit civil et le cours de droit public sont l'équivalent des cours "Rechtslehre" et "Baurecht" en langue allemande et des exercices y relatifs.

Les examens peuvent se faire en français ou en italien. Le candidat qui désire être interrogé en langue italienne le précisera lors de l'inscription et avertira les examina-teurs par écrit un mois au plus tard avant l'examen.
853-0048-00LInternational Politics: Theory and Methods (with Tutorat) Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA.
O4 credits3G + 1UF. Schimmelfennig
AbstractThe course covers the main theories (realism, institutionalism, liberalism, transnationalism and constructivism) as well as core problems of international politics such as war, peace, international cooperation and integration. The lectures are accompanied by a tutorial with case studies.
ObjectiveFirst, the course seeks to generate a better understanding of the central and specific problems of politics in the international realm, which result from the absence of centralized rule enforcement ("anarchy") . In addition, participants become familiar with the main theories of International Relations and the mechanisms and conditions these identify for solving international problems of security and cooperation. Case studies on areas and issues of international politics provide an overview of current international developments and an exemplary application of IR theory.
Content1. The subject-matter and problems of international politics

Theories
2. Power and Balance: Realism
3. Problem structures and negotiations in international politics
4. Interdependence and Institutions: Institutionalism and Transnationalism
5. Democracy and Society: Liberalism
6. Identity and Community: Constructivism

Issue Areas and Relationships
7. War: New Wars
8. Peace: The "long" and the "democratic" peace
9. Security cooperation: the new NATO
10. Economic cooperation: the world trade order
11. Human rights cooperation: global and regional human rights regimes
12. Legitimacy and Democracy in Global Governance
Lecture notesSchimmelfennig, Frank: Internationale Politik. Paderborn: Schöningh Verlag, 5. Auflage, 2017.
853-0034-00LLeadership II Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA and DAS in Military Sciences.
O4 credits2V + 1UF. Kernic, F. Demont, M. Holenweger
AbstractIn the lecture "Leadership II" we analyze specific leadership processes such as problem solving, planning, organizing, intercultural management, group-dynamics, crisis leadership and typical characteristics of successful leaders.
ObjectiveThe aim of this lecture is to give the students an insight into practical aspects of interactional and organizational leadership, such as problem solving and decision making, and crisis leadership. In addition, they will understand the importance of intercultural leadership in modern organizations and can transfer their insights into their future working environment. Finally, typical characteristics of successful leadership behavior will be presented and discussed.
ContentThis lecture will be completed by an additional practise hour which is compulsory for members of the armed officers forces.
Examination Block 2
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
351-1035-00LMacroeconomicsO3 credits2VM. Graff
AbstractNational accounts (production, distribution, demand). Monetary theory (Money demand and supply, inflation and interest). Macro models. The state and the economy (economic policy). Business Cycles. International economics (international trade, balance of payments, exchange rate).
ObjectiveComprehension of fundamental macroeconomic relationships and models. Discussion of current economic issues.
ContentLecture:
- National accounts (production, income and spending).
- Unemployment and inflation.
- Business Cycles.
- Money (supply and demand, interest rate).
- International economics .
(international trade, balance of payments and exchange rate).
- Macroeconomic models.
- Economic policy.
Lecture notesLecture slides
Literature1. Peter Eisenhut, Contemporary Economics, Issue 2018/19, Rüegger, 2018.
853-0726-00LHistory II: Global (Anti-Imperialism and Decolonisation, 1919-1975)O3 credits2VH. Fischer-Tiné
AbstractThe lecture will give an insight into the formation of anticolonial nationalist movements in Asia and Africa from the beginning of the 20th century onwards and discuss the various dimensions of dismantling of colonial empires.
ObjectiveThe lecture will give students an insight into the history of the non-European world, looking specifically into the political, economic, social and cultural transformation on the backgrounds of colonial penetration strategies and the resistance of anti-colonial movements. The aim is to show that societies in Asia and Africa are not just the product of colonial penetration or anti-colonial resistance, but that both aspects influenced the present political, economic, social and cultural perception of these parts of the world to a considerable extent. A nuanced knowledge of the long and arduous process of decolonisation is hence important to understand today's geopolitical constellation, still characterised by the struggle for a just post-imperial world order.
LiteratureJansen, J.C. und Osterhammel, J., Dekolonisation: Das Ende der Imperien, München 2013.
Prerequisites / NoticeA detailed syllabus will be available in due course at Link
853-0040-00LMilitary Psychology and Pedagogy IIO3 credits2VH. Annen
AbstractBuilding on the knowledge of psychological and pedagogical aspects of education acquired during the first semester, heighten the awareness and perception of education and leadership in military life as well as examining the phenomenon of stress and its importance to mission accomplishment. Elucidate the dangers of abuse of power and work out consequences on military life.
ObjectiveKnowing the different models of stress and stress management
Specifying symptoms of stress-related disorders and acquiring an overview of the most common treatments of combat stress reactions (CSR) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Knowing the psychological conditions that lead to abuse of authority and power, and deriving provisions to reduce that risk in military daily routine.
ContentParticipants shall be sensitized for psychological and pedagogic aspects of military formation, education and leadership. Specific military aspects are treated building on the subjects covered in the first semester and against the background of psychological basic research. Special attention is directed to the phenomenon "stress". The pedagogic perspective is taken into account by inquiring how and with which instruments the acquired knowledge can be implemented into practice.

Subjects:
- Stress
- Thought- and decision making processes under stress
- Psychological combat reactions and traumatic stress
- Power and authority
- Values - norms - aims
- The military leader as psychologist and pedagogue
Literature- Annen, H., Steiger, R. & Zwygart, U.: Gemeinsam zum Ziel, Huber, Frauenfeld 2004
- Stadelmann, J.: Führung unter Belastung, Huber, Frauenfeld 1998

The lecture is supported by a virtual learning environment containing relevant documents (presentations and texts as well as the above mentioned books) and information to further literature.
Remaining Core Courses of the Bachelor Programme
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
853-0312-00LProseminar II Restricted registration - show details O3 credits2SD. Kolcava, M. Wicki
AbstractIn the proseminar II, the focus will shift to the content of a scientific work. The students will improve their skills in doing research and transforming the results into a good written framework. It is also important to present the research work.
Objective1) Accurately formulating goal, procedure and design of research analysis
2) Gaining an overview over the dimensions of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
3) Creating a common basis for a thorough and systematic analysis of these.
ContentBoth proseminars give the students an introduction into the way of scientific work and research. This will be the basis for further scientific work throughout their studies. Methodological approaches are at the centre of the proseminar I. In the proseminar II, the focus will shift to the content of a scientific work. The students will improve their skills in doing research and transforming the results into a good written framework. It is also important to present the research work.
Lecture notesDiekmann, Andreas, 2009: Empirische Sozialforschung: Grundlagen,
Methoden, Anwendungen 20. Aufl., Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.

Plümper, Thomas, 2012: Effizient Schreiben: Leitfaden zum Verfassen von Qualifizierungsarbeiten und wissenschaftlichen Texten 3. Aufl., München: Oldenbourg.

Schnell, Rainer/Hill, Paul B./Esser, Elke, 1995: Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung 5. Aufl., München: Oldenbourg.

Van Evera, Stephen, 1997: Guide to methods for students of political science, Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.
853-0052-00LResearch Methods and Statistics Restricted registration - show details O4 credits3GP. Stöckli
AbstractThe course provides an introduction to applied quantitative research methods and data analysis used in social sciences. Students will be expected to demonstrate and apply the knowledge and skills gained from this course by conducting their own small research project: This involves data collection, data analysis using SPSS, and research report writing.
Objective- To know and understand the most important steps of the research process (problem – research question – literature research – hypothesis – method – analysis of the results – conclusion) and the most important concepts (e.g., independent and dependent variable, third variable, confounding variable, hypotheses).
- To be able to construct a research question and hypotheses based on reviewed literature.
- To be able to construct the key components of a questionnaire and measure the theoretical constructs using appropriate scales.
- To be able to design and conduct an experiment.
- To be able to test your hypotheses using appropriate statistical analyses via SPSS, and to write up your results in a research report.
Content- research process
- data collection
- data entry and data control
- descriptive statistics
- hypothesis testing, test of significance
- correlations
- T-Test, Analysis of variance (ANOVA
- writing a research report
- graphs and tables
LiteratureBeller, S. (2016). Empirisch forschen lernen. Konzepte, Methoden, Fallbeispiele, Tipps (3. überarb. Auflg.). Bern: Hogrefe Verlag.

Huber, O. (2013). Das psychologische Experiment. Eine Einführung. Bern: Hans Huber Verlag.
853-0051-00LMilitary Sociology II (with Exercises) Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA
O4 credits2V + 1UA. Rinaldo, T. Ferst, O. Schneider
AbstractOverview of current trends regadring the changes in the European security and military structures. Special attention is paid to the professionalisation of the armed forces and missions abroad. Furthermore, the Swiss milita-type army is analysed, the societal conditions for militia capability and its limits for the Swiss armed forces are discussed.
ObjectiveDescribe the change in function of the military and analyse changes concerning the European armed forces; explain European tendencies regarding the recruitment of personnel and indicate the decreasing importance of conscription; explain the specific aspects of the Swiss militia system in the military world; recognize the limits of the Swiss militia capability in the modern society and discuss consequences for the Swiss militia system.
ContentProblems of civil-military relations and democratic control of armed forces; "old" and "new" wars and the privatisation of security; the end of the mass armies in Europe - trends, causes, perspectives, militia capability of the society and military in Switzerland.

This course will be completed by a compulsary one week course between terms.
LiteratureA reader with a set of texts will be handed out.
Languages
First Foreign Language
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
853-0406-00LEnglish, Part II Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA
O3 credits2GS. Schweizer
AbstractThe knowledge and skills acquired in the first semester serve as a basis for further improvements in the areas of speaking, listening, reading and writing, which will enable students to enroll for the Cambridge exams. The goal is to reach level B2 or C1 (CEFR) depending on the linguistic proficiency of the students.
ObjectiveThis three-semester English course should enable the participants to successfully use the English language in an international military setting.
Content• Read, analyse and write military and civilian documents
• Listening comprehension using current radio or TV reports
• Practise speaking with group discussions and short presentations
• Systematic revision and extension of key grammar points
• Systematic acquisition of general and military vocabulary
Bachelor Studies (Programme Regulations 2011)
4. Semester
Remaining Core Courses of the Bachelor Programme
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
853-0056-00LPublic International Law Restricted registration - show details O3 credits2VA. R. Ziegler
AbstractThis course gives an overview over the main areas of public international law. It presents the legal foundations of the legal coordination and cooperation within the international community and between the most important international organizations, especially in the field of peace keeping, peace enforcement and conflict resolution.
ObjectiveParticipants learn to understand the legal foundations of the international order as well as its underlying problems and conflict areas. Participants know the main principles of the current system and master the necessary tools to to update their knowledge (literature, internet sources and legal documents) and analyze contemporary developments.
ContentThe focus lies on the law of international organizations. Following a general introduction organizations such as the UN, the OSCE, NATO and the WTO are treated. A particular emphasis constitutes the management of armed conflict within international organizations. Furthermore an overview is given on the law of European Union, as an example of a supranational body. The objective of the course is to give students an overview on the practical and political importance of international organizations in view of the continuing development of international law and the international legal system.
Lecture notesno script
LiteratureAndreas R. Ziegler, Einführung ins Völkerrecht, Stämpfli Verlag, Bern, 3. Aufl. 2015 (German) or Andreas R. Ziegler, Introduction au droit international public, Staempfli, Berne 3e éd. 2015 (French).
Prerequisites / Noticeno prerequisites
853-0086-00LBusiness Administration II Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA
O3 credits2VP. Barmettler
AbstractThe course BA II provides an understanding of the principles of Financial Accounting and Financial Reporting. It comprises an introduction to the concept of double-entry accounting, preparation of annual financial statements and financial statement analysis.
The theory conveyed is illustrated with excercises, case studies and examples from business practice.
ObjectiveObjectives:
- Develop thinking in a corporate finance context
- Record transactions and prepare financial statements
- Master tools and methods used for financial statement analysis
ContentI Financial Accounting

- Concept of double-entry accounting
- Accounts, journal and general ledger
- Statement of financial position, income statement
- Trade of goods
- Accruals and deferrals
- Valuation of assets and liabilities
- Hidden reserves

II Financial Reporting

- Preparation of annual financial statements
- Cash flow statement

III Financial statement analysis

- Ratio system
- Interpretation
LiteratureMeyer, Conrad (2017): Finanzielles Rechnungswesen - Einführung mit Beispielen und Aufgaben, 3., überarbeitete Auflage.
853-0058-00LSwiss Foreign and Security Politics Since 1945 Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA and DAS in Military Sciences.
O4 credits2V + 1UA. Wenger
AbstractThis course provides students with an overview of the main features of Swiss foreign and security policy since 1945. The focus is on the emergence and development of security policy strategies and instruments in a historical context. Using primary and secondary source texts as a basis, selected topics are analyzed and discussed in tutorials.
ObjectiveThe participants have a solid overview of the evolution of Swiss foreign and security policy since 1945.
ContentThe first part of the lecture clarifies the term "security" and analyzes the change of its meaning in politics and academia over time. The focus of the second part is on the development of Swiss security policy since 1945. We will look at the different concepts of security policy, which range from "total defense" to "cooperative security". We then will analyze the gap between planning and execution, focusing on the two key developments of security policy, that is foreign policy and armed forces. The tutorials help to deepen the understanding of key aspects of Swiss foreign and security policy-making. We will read and discuss a number of key (primary and secondary) sources.
LiteratureMandatory reading: Spillman, Kurt R., Andreas Wenger, Christoph Breitenmoser and Marcel Gerber. Schweizer Sicherheitspolitik seit 1945: Zwischen Autonomie und Kooperation. Zürich: Verlag neue Zürcher Zeitung, 2001.
The book is out of print, students can access the text in the virtual class room (Moodle).
Prerequisites / NoticeThe lecture is supported by a virtual class room (Moodle). If you have questions concerning the lecture, please contact Niklas Masuhr, Link.
853-0010-00LConflict Research II: Challenges of Contemporary Conflicts Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA.
O4 credits2V + 1UL.‑E. Cederman
AbstractThe second part of the course on international conflict research focuses on current challenges posed by civil wars. The course investigates the nature of such wars in general, as well as issues during and after conflict. A concluding module on dedicated to regional influences of and on civil wars. Exercises complete the Lectures.
ObjectiveDeveloping an understanding of basic concepts and debates in current research on civil wars, and particularly of the dynamics during and after the conclusion of a conflict. Additionally, the students are meant to develop a basic understanding of several important conflict regions.
Prerequisites / NoticeParticipation in the preceding course, Causes of War in a Historical Context (Conflict Research I), is a prerequisite.
853-0080-00LMilitary History IIO3 credits2VM. Olsansky
AbstractThe lecture elucidates the structural problems and the evolutionary path of the Swiss Army since the adaptation of the Napoleonic warfare in the year 1804. Emphasis will be put on the general mobilizations and reforms of the Army in the 20th century as well as on the related inner- and outer-military factional disputes.
Objective- Know and discuss the adaptation of the Swiss Army to the revolutions in military affairs in modern times;
- Grasp the problematic issues regarding the evolution of the Swiss Army;
- Know and be able to discuss the mobilizations of the Swiss Army in the 19th and 20th century.
ContentThe students should apprehend the evolutions of the Swiss Army in its social, economic, technological and political setting from 1804 to 2004. The development of the Swiss Army is compared with general developments regarding the Military Revolutions I-VI.
A special focus is set on the following topics:
- Mobilizations and planning of the operational deployment of the Swiss Army in 1847, 1856, 1914-1918, 1939-1945.
- Debates on the general conception and on operational doctrine 1945 - 2004
- The Army reforms 1945-2004
LiteratureDer Schweizerische Generalstab, Bd. I - XI, 1983-2011.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis lecture is based on lecture 853-0063-00L Military History I.
853-0057-00LStrategic Studies II (with Exercises) Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA and DAS in Military Sciences.
O4 credits2V + 1UM. Mantovani, M. Berni
AbstractThe lecture series, spread over two terms, covers strategic thinking and practice, especially in their military dimension, as well as theories of warfare from the ancient times to the present.
ObjectiveThe participants are cognizant of how the meaning of strategy has changed and they know the main theoretical concepts of strategy and theories of war. They are - after a study of their application in selected historical and contemporary situations - conscious of the difficulties of translating strategic concepts into practice.
ContentThe series covers key concepts of classical theory (e.g. Sun Tzu, Jomini, Clausewitz, Mahan, Liddell Hart, Beaufre etc.), against their historical background and their influence in history. It also deals with current doctrines especially of the US and their operational implementation, the strategies and (asymmetric) tactics of non-state actors and their suppression, i.e. irregular warfare.
The theory of warfare is being treated by means of Thucydides, Machiavelli, Clausewitz or Galula.
Lecture notesSlides, source texts and literature are being distributed ahead of the individual session.

A textbook with primary sources and a list of further reading are available online: Link
Literaturesee "Skript"
Prerequisites / NoticeActive knowledge of German, French and English.

The test covers the contents of the lectures and the discussed parts of the textbook.
853-0101-00LIntroduction to Military Business Administration (with Exercises) Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA.
O4 credits2V + 1UM. M. Keupp
AbstractThe course provides students with such knowledge in business administration that is particularly relevant in a military context. By practice-oriented discussions of real problems from the management of the Swiss Armed Forces, students work out analytical problem-solving concepts by which they can optimize and realize efficiency improvements.
Objective* To understand communalities and differences between economic and military thinking,
* To understand that economic action is primarily about optimization and efficiency, and not about saving as a goal in itself,
* To know key concepts of business administration and to be able to apply them in a military context,
* To know and comment on recent economic problems of the Swiss Armed Forces,
* To know and apply concepts of economic optimization.
ContentThe program of the course is organized into 14 units of 90 minutes each. The units combine the elements of lecture (teaching of analytical concepts) and application (by concrete case studies). Additionally, guest lecturers will hold talks on selected issues.

* Basics of economic thinking
* Analytical tools and cost analysis
* Economic decision making
* The public budget and the financing of the Armed Forces
* The price of security: The Armed Forces as a producer of public goods
* Outsourcing and procurement
* Strategic technology management
* Knowledge and capability management
* Real estate management
* Armed Forces logistics
Lecture notesThe complete course material will be uploaded for students' use to the myStudies platform.
LiteratureThe Lecturer will distribute all necessary literature directly to the students by disseminating pdf files or citing links to online references. For an introduction to the topic and general background reference, please refer to:

* Wöhe, G.; Döring, U. 2010. Einführung in die allgemeine Betriebswirtschaftslehre. 24th ed. Vahlen.
Prerequisites / Noticenone.
853-0322-00LAdvanced Course I (Seminar) Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA
O4 credits3SA. Wenger, M. Olsansky
AbstractIn this double-semester course students write an academic text at an advanced level on a topic in Strategic Studies. In the first part of the course, the students design a research design. In the second part, they write a term paper and present before the class.
ObjectiveThe goal of this double-semester course, which is divided up into several groups, consists of working out a research question in the field of Strategic Studies, retrieving useful literature, writing a scientific paper and presenting it before the class.
ContentIm ersten Teil der Veranstaltung geht es anhand der Lektüre und der Diskussion ausgewählter Fachliteratur um die Einarbeitung in die Thematik des Seminars. Auf dieser Basis wird ein Research Design erarbeitet. Zusätzlich soll auf methodische Probleme und Schwierigkeiten eingegangen werden. Im zweiten Teil verfassen die Studierenden ihre Seminararbeiten und präsentieren diese im Plenum.
Languages
Second Foreign Language
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
853-0401-00LGerman, Part I Restricted registration - show details
Only for Public Policy BA
W3 credits2GS. Schweizer
AbstractDuring the first semester the future professional officers acquire those second language skills which enable them to successfully perform their military activities. The focus is especially on instruction and leadership terminology as well as on the ability to describe their professional environment. Moreover, the students learn to exploit media information for further professional use.
ObjectiveThis two-semester German course should enable the French and Italian speaking participants to fulfil their function as professional officers also in the German language.
Content•Read, analyse and write military and civilian documents
•Listening comprehension using current radio or TV reports
•Practise speaking with group discussions and short presentations
•Systematic revision and extension of key grammar points
•Systematic acquisition of general and military vocabulary
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