Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2018

MAS in Medical Physics Information
Specialization: General Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering
Major in Radiation Therapy
Core Courses
227-0968-00LMonte Carlo in Medical PhysicsW4 credits3GM. Stampanoni, M. K. Fix
AbstractIntroduction in basics of Monte Carlo simulations in the field of medical radiation physics. General recipe for Monte Carlo simulations in medical physics from code selection to fine-tuning the implementation. Characterization of radiation by means of Monte Carlo simulations.
ObjectiveUnderstanding the concept of the Monte Carlo method. Getting familiar with the Monte Carlo technique, knowing different codes and several applications of this method. Learn how to use Monte Carlo in the field of applied medical radiation physics. Understand the usage of Monte Carlo to characterize the physical behaviour of ionizing radiation in medical physics. Share the enthusiasm about the potential of the Monte Carlo technique and its usefulness in an interdisciplinary environment.
ContentThe lecture provides the basic principles of the Monte Carlo method in medical radiation physics. Some fundamental concepts on applications of ionizing radiation in clinical medical physics will be reviewed. Several techniques in order to increase the simulation efficiency of Monte Carlo will be discussed. A general recipe for performing Monte Carlo simulations will be compiled. This recipe will be demonstrated for typical clinical devices generating ionizing radiation, which will help to understand implementation of a Monte Carlo model. Next, more patient related effects including the estimation of the dose distribution in the patient, patient movements and imaging of the patient's anatomy. A further part of the lecture covers the simulation of radioactive sources as well as heavy ion treatment modalities. The field of verification and quality assurance procedures from the perspective of Monte Carlo simulations will be discussed. To complete the course potential future applications of Monte Carlo methods in the evolving field of treating patients with ionizing radiation.
Lecture notesA script will be provided.
402-0342-00LMedical Physics IIW6 credits2V + 1UP. Manser
AbstractApplications of ionizing radiation in medicine such as radiation therapy, nuclear medicine and radiation diagnostics. Theory of dosimetry based on cavity theory and clinical consequences. Fundamentals of dose calculation, optimization and evaluation. Concepts of external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Recent and future developments: IMRT, IGRT, SRS/SBRT, particle therapy.
ObjectiveGetting familiar with the different medical applications of ionizing radiation in the fields of radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, and radiation diagnostics. Dealing with concepts such as external beam radiation therapy as well as brachytherapy for the treatment of cancer patients. Understanding the fundamental cavity theory for dose measurements and its consequences on clinical practice. Understanding different delivery techniques such as IMRT, IGRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, particle therapy using protons, heavy ions or neutrons. Understanding the principles of dose calculation, optimization and evaluation for radiation therapy, nuclear medicine and radiation diagnostic applications. Finally, the lecture aims to demonstrate that medical physics is a fascinating and evolving discipline where physics can directly be used for the benefits of patients and the society.
ContentIn this lecture, the use of ionizing radiation in different clinical applications is discussed. Primarily, we will concentrate on radiation therapy and will cover applications such as external beam radiotherapy with photons and electrons, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image guided radiotherapy (IGRT), stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery, brachytherapy, particle therapy using protons, heavy ions or neutrons. In addition, dosimetric methods based on cavity theory are reviewed and principles of treatment planning (dose calculation, optimization and evaluation) are discussed. Next to these topics, applications in nuclear medicine and radiation diagnostics are explained with the clear focus on dosimetric concepts and behaviour.
Lecture notesA script will be provided.
Prerequisites / NoticeIt is recommended that the students have taken the lecture Medical Physics I in advance.
Practical Work
465-0420-00LRadiation Protection Course Information Restricted registration - show details
Only for MAS in Medical Physics
W4 credits6Gexternal organisers
AbstractThe course contains all topics in theory and practice, which are necessary for the officially recognized radiation protection officer working with open radioactive materials in working areas B and C. After successful completed exams a BAG recognized certificate is issued. This permits also an appointment as radiation protection delegate in the area of responsibility of the ENSI.
ObjectiveThe participants of this course will acquire the competence, the capabilities and the knowledge in order to fulfil the tasks of a radiation protection officer working with open radioactive materials in working areas B and C in accordance with the ordinance of education in radiation protection (814.501.261).
Content- Grundkenntnisse der Strahlenphysik und der Strahlenbiologie
- Dosisabschätzung bei interner und externer Bestrahlung
- Kenntnis der für den Umgang mit offenen und geschlossenen Strahlenquellen massgeblichen Gesetzen und Verordnungen
- Erkennen und abschätzen von Gefährdungspotenzialen
- Festlegen von Strahlenschutz-Betriebsvorschriften, Sicherheitsplänen sowie baulicher, organisatorischer und operationeller Massnahmen
- Kenntnis und Anwendung von Messgeräten
- Planung und Durchführung der Personen- und Arbeitsplatzüberwachung
465-0800-00LPractical Work Restricted registration - show details
Only for MAS in Medical Physics
W4 creditsexternal organisers
AbstractThe practical work is designed to train the students in the solution of a specific problem and provides insights in the field of the selected MAS specialization. Tutors propose the subject of the project, the project plan, and the roadmap together with the student, as well as monitor the overall execution.
ObjectiveThe practical work is aimed at training the student’s capability to apply and connect specific skills acquired during the MAS specialization program towards the solution of a focused problem.
227-0390-00LElements of MicroscopyW4 credits3GM. Stampanoni, G. Csúcs, A. Sologubenko
AbstractThe lecture reviews the basics of microscopy by discussing wave propagation, diffraction phenomena and aberrations. It gives the basics of light microscopy, introducing fluorescence, wide-field, confocal and multiphoton imaging. It further covers 3D electron microscopy and 3D X-ray tomographic micro and nanoimaging.
ObjectiveSolid introduction to the basics of microscopy, either with visible light, electrons or X-rays.
ContentIt would be impossible to imagine any scientific activities without the help of microscopy. Nowadays, scientists can count on very powerful instruments that allow investigating sample down to the atomic level.
The lecture includes a general introduction to the principles of microscopy, from wave physics to image formation. It provides the physical and engineering basics to understand visible light, electron and X-ray microscopy.
During selected exercises in the lab, several sophisticated instrument will be explained and their capabilities demonstrated.
LiteratureAvailable Online.
227-0946-00LMolecular Imaging - Basic Principles and Biomedical ApplicationsW2 credits2VM. Rudin
AbstractConcept: What is molecular imaging.
Discussion/comparison of the various imaging modalities used in molecular imaging.
Design of target specific probes: specificity, delivery, amplification strategies.
Biomedical Applications.
ObjectiveMolecular Imaging is a rapidly emerging discipline that translates concepts developed in molecular biology and cellular imaging to in vivo imaging in animals and ultimatly in humans. Molecular imaging techniques allow the study of molecular events in the full biological context of an intact organism and will therefore become an indispensable tool for biomedical research.
ContentConcept: What is molecular imaging.
Discussion/comparison of the various imaging modalities used in molecular imaging.
Design of target specific probes: specificity, delivery, amplification strategies.
Biomedical Applications.
227-0948-00LMagnetic Resonance Imaging in MedicineW4 credits3GS. Kozerke, M. Weiger Senften
AbstractIntroduction to magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, encoding and contrast mechanisms and their application in medicine.
ObjectiveUnderstand the basic principles of signal generation, image encoding and decoding, contrast manipulation and the application thereof to assess anatomical and functional information in-vivo.
ContentIntroduction to magnetic resonance imaging including basic phenomena of nuclear magnetic resonance; 2- and 3-dimensional imaging procedures; fast and parallel imaging techniques; image reconstruction; pulse sequences and image contrast manipulation; equipment; advanced techniques for identifying activated brain areas; perfusion and flow; diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking; contrast agents; localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging; diagnostic applications and applications in research.
Lecture notesD. Meier, P. Boesiger, S. Kozerke
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy
376-1984-00LLasers in MedicineW3 credits3GM. Frenz
AbstractThe lecture will provide answers to questions such as: Why lasers? How do lasers work? How does light interact with tissue? We will concentrate on three major interaction categories: Therapeutic (from cell surgery to vision correction and general surgery), Diagnostic (from detection of neural cell activity to diagnostics of cancer), and Imaging (from single molecules to optical tomography).
ObjectiveIntroduction into medical laser applications. Understanding of the physics underlaying the laser-tissue-interaction in order to understand the influence of different irradiation parameters on tissue effects. Basics of diagnostic laser applications as well as laser safety.
ContentLasers become increasingly important in almost all medical disciplines especially where they can be used selectively to treat soft and hard tissue in a non-invasive manner or for diagnostic purposes. Basic mechanisms of light propagation in tissue as well as laser-tissue-interactions i.e. photochemical, photothermal and photomechanical interaction will be discussed. The influence of laser wavelength and pulse duration on the interaction process will be studied. Different laser and beam delivery systems used in medicine will be presented. Different clinical laser applications in ophthalmology, urology, gynecology and ENT-surgery will be discussed. Diagnostic applications as well as biomedical imaging techniques are considered. Laser safety.
Lecture noteswill be published in the Internet
Literature- M. Born, E. Wolf, "Principles of Optics", Pergamon Press
- B.E.A. Saleh, M.C. Teich, "Fundamentals of Photonics", John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
- A.E. Siegman, "Lasers", University Science Books
- O. Svelto, "Principles of Lasers", Plenum Press
- J. Eichler, T. Seiler, "Lasertechnik in der Medizin", Springer Verlag
- M.H. Niemz, "Laser-Tissue Interaction", Springer Verlag
- A.J. Welch, M.J.C. van Gemert, "Optical-thermal response of laser-irradiated
tissue", Plenum Press
402-0343-00LPhysics Against Cancer: The Physics of Imaging and Treating CancerW6 credits2V + 1UA. J. Lomax, U. Schneider
AbstractRadiotherapy is a rapidly developing and technology driven medical discipline that is heavily dependent on physics and engineering. In this lecture series, we will review and describe some of the current developments in radiotherapy, particularly from the physics and technological view point, and will indicate in which direction future research in radiotherapy will lie.
ObjectiveRadiotherapy is a rapidly developing and technology driven medical discipline that is heavily dependent on physics and engineering. In the last few years, a multitude of new techniques, equipment and technology have been introduced, all with the primary aim of more accurately targeting and treating cancerous tissues, leading to a precise, predictable and effective therapy technique. In this lecture series, we will review and describe some of the current developments in radiotherapy, particularly from the physics and technological view point, and will indicate in which direction future research in radiotherapy will lie. Our ultimate aim is to provide the student with a taste for the critical role that physics plays in this rapidly evolving discipline and to show that there is much interesting physics still to be done.
ContentThe lecture series will begin with a short introduction to radiotherapy and an overview of the lecture series (lecture 1). Lecture 2 will cover the medical imaging as applied to radiotherapy, without which it would be impossible to identify or accurately calculate the deposition of radiation in the patient. This will be followed by a detailed description of the treatment planning process, whereby the distribution of deposited energy within the tumour and patient can be accurately calculated, and the optimal treatment defined (lecture 3). Lecture 4 will follow on with this theme, but concentrating on the more theoretical and mathematical techniques that can be used to evaluate different treatments, using mathematically based biological models for predicting the outcome of treatments. The role of physics modeling, in order to accurately calculate the dose deposited from radiation in the patient, will be examined in lecture 5, together with a review of mathematical tools that can be used to optimize patient treatments. Lecture 6 will investigate a rather different issue, that is the standardization of data sets for radiotherapy and the importance of medical data bases in modern therapy. In lecture 7 we will look in some detail at one of the most advanced radiotherapy delivery techniques, namely Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). In lecture 8, the two topics of imaging and therapy will be somewhat combined, when we will describe the role of imaging in the daily set-up and assessment of patients. Lecture 9 follows up on this theme, in which a major problem of radiotherapy, namely organ motion and changes in patient and tumour geometry during therapy, will be addressed, together with methods for dealing with such problems. Finally, in lectures 10-11, we will describe in some of the multitude of different delivery techniques that are now available, including particle based therapy, rotational (tomo) therapy approaches and robot assisted radiotherapy. In the final lecture, we will provide an overview of the likely avenues of research in the next 5-10 years in radiotherapy. The course will be rounded-off with an opportunity to visit a modern radiotherapy unit, in order to see some of the techniques and delivery methods described in the course in action.
Prerequisites / NoticeAlthough this course is seen as being complimentary to the Medical Physics I and II course of Dr Manser, no previous knowledge of radiotherapy is necessarily expected or required for interested students who have not attended the other two courses.
465-0968-00LMedical Physics in PracticeW2 credits2VP. Manser, Speakers
AbstractThe aim of this lecture is to study different aspects of medical physics from the practical view. One main component is to assist the students for getting in contact with medical physicists and to build a platform for a dialogue. For this purpose, a number of lecturers from entire Switzerland are reportig about their work as a medical physicist.
ObjectiveThe aim of this lecture is to study different aspects of medical physics from the practical view.
402-0787-00LTherapeutic Applications of Particle Physics: Principles and Practice of Particle TherapyW6 credits2V + 1UA. J. Lomax
AbstractPhysics and medical physics aspects of particle physics
Subjects: Physics interactions and beam characteristics; medical accelerators; beam delivery; pencil beam scanning; dosimetry and QA; treatment planning; precision and uncertainties; in-vivo dose verification; proton therapy biology.
ObjectiveThe lecture series is focused on the physics and medical physics aspects of particle therapy. The radiotherapy of tumours using particles (particularly protons) is a rapidly expanding discipline, with many new proton and particle therapy facilities currently being planned and built throughout Europe. In this lecture series, we study in detail the physics background to particle therapy, starting from the fundamental physics interactions of particles with tissue, through to treatment delivery, treatment planning and in-vivo dose verification. The course is aimed at students with a good physics background and an interest in the application of physics to medicine.
Prerequisites / NoticeThe former title of this course was "Medical Imaging and Therapeutic Applications of Particle Physics".
227-0384-00LUltrasound Fundamentals, Imaging, and Medical Applications Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 25.
W4 credits3GO. Göksel
AbstractUltrasound is the only imaging modality that is nonionizing (safe), real-time, cost-effective, and portable, with many medical uses in diagnosis, intervention guidance, surgical navigation, and as a therapeutic option. In this course, we introduce conventional and prospective applications of ultrasound, starting with the fundamentals of ultrasound physics and imaging.
ObjectiveStudents can use the fundamentals of ultrasound, to analyze and evaluate ultrasound imaging techniques and applications, in particular in the field of medicine, as well as to design and implement basic applications.
ContentUltrasound is used in wide range of products, from car parking sensors, to assessing fault lines in tram wheels. Medical imaging is the eye of the doctor into body; and ultrasound is the only imaging modality that is nonionizing (safe), real-time, cheap, and portable. Some of its medical uses include diagnosing breast and prostate cancer, guiding needle insertions/biopsies, screening for fetal anomalies, and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias. Ultrasound physically interacts with the tissue, and thus can also be used therapeutically, e.g., to deliver heat to treat tumors, break kidney stones, and targeted drug delivery. Recent years have seen several novel ultrasound techniques and applications – with many more waiting in the horizon to be discovered.

This course covers ultrasonic equipment, physics of wave propagation, numerical methods for its simulation, image generation, beamforming (basic delay-and-sum and advanced methods), transducers (phased-, linear-, convex-arrays), near- and far-field effect, imaging modes (e.g., A-, M-, B-mode), Doppler and harmonic imaging, ultrasound signal processing techniques (e.g., filtering, time-gain-compensation, displacement tracking), image analysis techniques (deconvolution, real-time processing, tracking, segmentation, computer-assisted interventions), acoustic-radiation force, plane-wave imaging, contrast agents, micro-bubbles, elastography, biomechanical characterization, high-intensity focused ultrasound and therapy, lithotripsy, histotripsy, photo-acoustics phenomenon and opto-acoustic imaging, as well as sample non-medical applications such as the basics of non-destructive testing (NDT).
Prerequisites / NoticeHands-on exercises will help apply concepts learned in the module, and will involve a mix of designing, implementing, and evaluating in simulation environments, such as Matlab FieldII and k-Wave toolboxes.

Prerequisites: Familiarity with basic numerical methods.
Basic programming skills and experience in Matlab.
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