Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2019

Atmospheric and Climate Science Master Information
Modules
Weather Systems and Atmospheric Dynamics
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1224-00LMesoscale Atmospheric Systems - Observation and ModellingW2 credits2VH. Wernli, U. Germann
AbstractMesoscale meteorology focusing on processes relevant for the evolution of precipitation systems. Discussion of empirical and mathematical-physical models for, e.g., fronts and convective storms. Consideration of oceanic evaporation, transport and the associated physics of stable water isotopes. Introduction to weather radar being the widespread instrument for observing mesoscale precipitation.
ObjectiveBasic concepts of observational and theoretical mesoscale meteorology, including precipitation measurements and radar. Knowledge about the interpretation of radar images. Understanding of processes leading to the formation of fronts and convective storms, and basic knowledge on ocean evaporation and the physics of stable water isotopes.
701-1216-00LNumerical Modelling of Weather and Climate Information W4 credits3GC. Schär, N. Ban
AbstractThe course provides an introduction to weather and climate models. It discusses how these models are built addressing both the dynamical core and the physical parameterizations, and it provides an overview of how these models are used in numerical weather prediction and climate research. As a tutorial, students conduct a term project and build a simple atmospheric model using the language PYTHON.
ObjectiveAt the end of this course, students understand how weather and climate models are formulated from the governing physical principles, and how they are used for climate and weather prediction purposes.
ContentThe course provides an introduction into the following themes: numerical methods (finite differences and spectral methods); adiabatic formulation of atmospheric models (vertical coordinates, hydrostatic approximation); parameterization of physical processes (e.g. clouds, convection, boundary layer, radiation); atmospheric data assimilation and weather prediction; predictability (chaos-theory, ensemble methods); climate models (coupled atmospheric, oceanic and biogeochemical models); climate prediction. Hands-on experience with simple models will be acquired in the tutorials.
Lecture notesSlides and lecture notes will be made available at
Link
LiteratureList of literature will be provided.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: to follow this course, you need some basic background in atmospheric science, numerical methods (e.g., "Numerische Methoden in der Umweltphysik", 701-0461-00L) as well as experience in programming. Previous experience with PYTHON is useful but not required.
701-1226-00LInter-Annual Phenomena and Their Prediction Information W2 credits2GC. Appenzeller
AbstractThis course provides an overview of the current ability to understand and predict intra-seasonal and inter-annual climate variability in the tropical and extra-tropical region and provides insights on how operational weather and climate services are organized.
ObjectiveStudents will acquire an understanding of the key atmosphere and ocean processes involved, will gain experience in analyzing and predicting sub-seasonal to inter-annual variability and learn how operational weather and climate services are organised and how scientific developments can improve these services.
ContentThe course covers the following topics:

Part 1:
- Introduction, some basic concepts and examples of sub-seasonal and inter-annual variability
- Weather and climate data and the statistical concepts used for analysing inter-annual variability (e.g. correlation analysis, teleconnection maps, EOF analysis)

Part 2:
- Inter-annual variability in the tropical region (e.g. ENSO, MJO)
- Inter-annual variability in the extra-tropical region (e.g. Blocking, NAO, PNA, regimes)

Part 3:
- Prediction of inter-annual variability (statistical methods, ensemble prediction systems, monthly and seasonal forecasts, seamless forecasts)
- Verification and interpretation of probabilistic forecast systems
- Climate change and inter-annual variability

Part 4:
- Challenges for operational weather and climate services
- Role of weather and climate extremes
- Early warning systems
- A visit to the forecasting centre of MeteoSwiss
Lecture notesA pdf version of the slides will be available at
Link
LiteratureReferences are given during the lecture.
701-1228-00LCloud Dynamics: Hurricanes Information W4 credits3GU. Lohmann
AbstractHurricanes are among the most destructive elements in the atmosphere. This lecture will discuss the physical requirements for their formation, life cycle, damage potential and their relationship to global warming. It also distinguishes hurricanes from thunderstorms and tornadoes.
ObjectiveAt the end of this course students will be able to distinguish the formation and life cycle mechanisms of tropical cyclones from those of extratropical thunderstorms/cyclones, project how tropical cyclones change in a warmer climate based on their physics and evaluate different tropical cyclone modification ideas.
Lecture notesSlides will be made available
LiteratureA literature list can be found here: Link
Prerequisites / NoticeAt least one introductory lecture in Atmospheric Science or Instructor's consent.
Climate Processes and Feedbacks
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1216-00LNumerical Modelling of Weather and Climate Information W4 credits3GC. Schär, N. Ban
AbstractThe course provides an introduction to weather and climate models. It discusses how these models are built addressing both the dynamical core and the physical parameterizations, and it provides an overview of how these models are used in numerical weather prediction and climate research. As a tutorial, students conduct a term project and build a simple atmospheric model using the language PYTHON.
ObjectiveAt the end of this course, students understand how weather and climate models are formulated from the governing physical principles, and how they are used for climate and weather prediction purposes.
ContentThe course provides an introduction into the following themes: numerical methods (finite differences and spectral methods); adiabatic formulation of atmospheric models (vertical coordinates, hydrostatic approximation); parameterization of physical processes (e.g. clouds, convection, boundary layer, radiation); atmospheric data assimilation and weather prediction; predictability (chaos-theory, ensemble methods); climate models (coupled atmospheric, oceanic and biogeochemical models); climate prediction. Hands-on experience with simple models will be acquired in the tutorials.
Lecture notesSlides and lecture notes will be made available at
Link
LiteratureList of literature will be provided.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: to follow this course, you need some basic background in atmospheric science, numerical methods (e.g., "Numerische Methoden in der Umweltphysik", 701-0461-00L) as well as experience in programming. Previous experience with PYTHON is useful but not required.
701-1232-00LRadiation and Climate ChangeW3 credits2GM. Wild
AbstractThis lecture focuses on the prominent role of radiation in the energy balance of the Earth and in the context of past and future climate change.
ObjectiveThe aim of this course is to develop a thorough understanding of the fundamental role of radiation in the context of Earth's energy balance and climate change.
ContentThe course will cover the following topics:
Basic radiation laws; sun-earth relations; the sun as driver of climate change (faint sun paradox, Milankovic ice age theory, solar cycles); radiative forcings in the atmosphere: aerosol, water vapour, clouds; radiation balance of the Earth (satellite and surface observations, modeling approaches); anthropogenic perturbation of the Earth radiation balance: greenhouse gases and enhanced greenhouse effect, air pollution and global dimming; radiation-induced feedbacks in the climate system (water vapour feedback, snow albedo feedback); climate model scenarios under various radiative forcings.
Lecture notesSlides will be made available, lecture notes for part of the course
LiteratureAs announced in the course
701-1252-00LClimate Change Uncertainty and Risk: From Probabilistic Forecasts to Economics of Climate AdaptationW3 credits2V + 1UD. N. Bresch, R. Knutti
AbstractThe course introduces the concepts of predictability, probability, uncertainty and probabilistic risk modelling and their application to climate modeling and the economics of climate adaptation.
ObjectiveStudents will acquire knowledge in uncertainty and risk quantification (probabilistic modelling) and an understanding of the economics of climate adaptation. They will become able to construct their own uncertainty and risk assessment models (in Python), hence basic understanding of scientific programming forms a prerequisite of the course.
ContentThe first part of the course covers methods to quantify uncertainty in detecting and attributing human influence on climate change and to generate probabilistic climate change projections on global to regional scales. Model evaluation, calibration and structural error are discussed. In the second part, quantification of risks associated with local climate impacts and the economics of different baskets of climate adaptation options are assessed – leading to informed decisions to optimally allocate resources. Such pre-emptive risk management allows evaluating a mix of prevention, preparation, response, recovery, and (financial) risk transfer actions, resulting in an optimal balance of public and private contributions to risk management, aiming at a more resilient society.
The course provides an introduction to the following themes:
1) basics of probabilistic modelling and quantification of uncertainty from global climate change to local impacts of extreme events
2) methods to optimize and constrain model parameters using observations
3) risk management from identification (perception) and understanding (assessment, modelling) to actions (prevention, preparation, response, recovery, risk transfer)
4) basics of economic evaluation, economic decision making in the presence of climate risks and pre-emptive risk management to optimally allocate resources
Lecture notesPowerpoint slides will be made available
Literature-
Prerequisites / NoticeHands-on experience with probabilistic climate models and risk models will be acquired in the tutorials; hence basic understanding of scientific programming forms a prerequisite of the course. Basic understanding of the climate system, e.g. as covered in the course 'Klimasysteme' is required.

Examination: graded tutorials during the semester (benotete Semesterleistung)
Atmospheric Composition and Cycles
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1234-00LTropospheric ChemistryW3 credits2GD. W. Brunner, I. El Haddad
AbstractThe course gives an overview tropospheric chemistry, which is based on laboratory studies, measurements and numerical modelling. The topics include aerosol, photochemistry, emissions and depositions. The lecture covers urban-regional-to-global scale issues, as well as fundamentals of the atmospheric nitrogen, sulfur and CH4 cycles and their contributions to aerosol and oxidant formation.
ObjectiveBased on the presented material the students are expected to understand the most relevant processes responsible for the anthropogenic disturbances of tropospheric chemical composition. The competence of synthesis of knowledge will be improved by paper reading and student's presentations.
These presentations relate to a particular actual problem selected by the candidates.
ContentStarting from the knowledge acquired in lecture 701-0471, the course provides a more profound view on the the chemical and dynamical process governing the composition and impacts of air pollutants like aerosol and ozone, at the Earth's surface and the free troposphere.
Specific topics covered by the lecture are: laboratory and ambient measurements in polluted and pristine regions, the determination of emissions of a variety of components, numerical modelling across scales, regional air pollution - aerosol, and photooxidant in relation to precursor emissions,
impacts (health, vegetation, climate), the global cycles of tropospheric ozone, CH4, sulfur and nitrogen components.
Lecture notesLecture presentations are available for download.
LiteratureD. Jacob, Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry Link

Mark Z. Jacobson: Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modelling, Cambridge University Press

John Seinfeld and Spyros Pandis, Atmosperic Chemistry and Physics, from air pollution to Climate Change, Wiley, 2006.
Prerequisites / NoticeThe basics in physical chemsitry are required and an overview equivalent to the bachelor course in atmospheric chemsitry (lecture 701-0471-01) is expected.
701-1238-00LAdvanced Field and Lab Studies in Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Restricted registration - show details
Limited number of participants.
W3 credits2PU. Krieger
AbstractIn the course 701-0460-00 P we offer the opportunity to carry out atmospheric physical and chemical experiments. The present course will be held in connection with this practical course. An individual assignment of a specific topic will be made for interested students who can acquire knowledge in experimental, instrumental, or numerical aspects of atmospheric chemistry.
ObjectiveIn the course 701-0460-00 P, Practical training in atmosphere and climate, we offer the opportunity to carry out atmospheric physical and chemical experiments. The present course will be held in connection with this practical course. An individual assignment of a specific topic will be made for interested students who can acquire knowledge in experimental, instrumental, numerical or theoretical aspects of atmospheric chemistry.

This course is addressed to students who have not attended the practical course 701-0460-00 P during their Bachelor studies, but want to gain knowledge in field work connected to atmospheric chemistry. The specific topic to work on may be chosen based on individual interests and resources available.
Prerequisites / NoticeIt is mandatory for interested students to contact the instructor before the term starts, so that individual assignments can be made/planned for.

The maximum number of participants for this course will be limited depending on resources available.
701-1317-00LGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles and ClimateW3 credits3GN. Gruber, M. Vogt
AbstractThe human-induced emissions of carbon dioxide has led to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that Earth likely has no’t seen for the last 30 million years. This course aims to investigate and understand the impact of humans on Earth's biogeochemical cycles with a focus on the carbon cycle and its interaction with the physical climate system for the past, the present, and the future.
ObjectiveThis course aims to investigate the nature of the interaction between biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean with climate and how this interaction has evolved over time and will change in the future. Students are expected to participate actively in the course, which includes the critical reading of the pertinent literature and class presentations.
ContentTopics discussed include: The anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle and climate. Response of land and oceanic ecosystems to past and future global changes; Interactions between biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean; Biogeochemical processes controlling carbon dioxide and oxygen in the ocean and atmosphere on time-scales from a few years to a few hundred thousand years.
Lecture notesSarmiento & Gruber (2006), Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press. Additional handouts will be provided as needed. see website: Link
LiteratureSarmiento & Gruber (2006), Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press, 526pp.

MacKenzie, F. T. (1999), Global biogeochemical cycles and the physical climate system, Global Change Instruction Program, UCAR, Boulder, CO, 69pp.

W. H. Schlesinger (1997), Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, Academic Press.

Original literature.
Climate History and Paleoclimatology
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4004-00LThe Global Carbon Cycle - ReducedW3 credits2GT. I. Eglinton, M. Lupker
AbstractThe carbon cycle connects different reservoirs of C, including life on Earth, atmospheric CO2, and economically important geological reserves of C. Much of this C is in reduced (organic) form, and is composed of complex chemical structures that reflect diverse biological activity, processes and transformations.
ObjectiveA wealth of information is held within the complex organic molecules, both in the context of the contemporary carbon cycle and its links to is other biogeochemical cycles, as well as in relation to Earth's history, the evolution of life and climate on this planet.

In this course we will learn about the role of reduced forms of carbon in the global cycle, how these forms of carbon are produced, move around the planet, and become sequestered in the geological record, and how they can be used to infer biological activity and conditions on this planet in the geologic past. The course encompasses a range of spatial and temporal scales, from molecular to global, and from the contemporary environment to earliest life.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course and the lecture course "651-4044-00L Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry" Link are good preparations for the combined Field-Lab Course ("651-4044-02 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Field Course" and "651-4044-01 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Lab Practical"). Details under Link
701-1317-00LGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles and ClimateW3 credits3GN. Gruber, M. Vogt
AbstractThe human-induced emissions of carbon dioxide has led to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that Earth likely has no’t seen for the last 30 million years. This course aims to investigate and understand the impact of humans on Earth's biogeochemical cycles with a focus on the carbon cycle and its interaction with the physical climate system for the past, the present, and the future.
ObjectiveThis course aims to investigate the nature of the interaction between biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean with climate and how this interaction has evolved over time and will change in the future. Students are expected to participate actively in the course, which includes the critical reading of the pertinent literature and class presentations.
ContentTopics discussed include: The anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle and climate. Response of land and oceanic ecosystems to past and future global changes; Interactions between biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean; Biogeochemical processes controlling carbon dioxide and oxygen in the ocean and atmosphere on time-scales from a few years to a few hundred thousand years.
Lecture notesSarmiento & Gruber (2006), Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press. Additional handouts will be provided as needed. see website: Link
LiteratureSarmiento & Gruber (2006), Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press, 526pp.

MacKenzie, F. T. (1999), Global biogeochemical cycles and the physical climate system, Global Change Instruction Program, UCAR, Boulder, CO, 69pp.

W. H. Schlesinger (1997), Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, Academic Press.

Original literature.
651-4044-04LMicropalaeontology and Molecular PalaeontologyW3 credits2GH. Stoll, B. Ausin Gonzalez, T. I. Eglinton, I. Hernández Almeida
AbstractThe course aims to provide an introduction to the key micropaleontological and molecular fossils from marine and terrestrial niches, and the use of these fossils for reconstructing environmental and evolutionary changes.
ObjectiveThe course aims to provide an introduction to the key micropaleontological and molecular fossils from marine and terrestrial niches, and the use of these fossils for reconstructing environmental and evolutionary changes.

The course will include laboratory exercises with microscopy training: identification of plantonic foraminifera and the application of transfer functions, identification of calcareous nannoliths and estimation of water column structure and productivity with n-ratio, identification of major calcareous nannofossils for Mesozoic-cenozoic biostratigraphy, Quaternary radiolarian assemblages and estimation of diversity indices.
The course will include laboratory exercises on molecular markers include study of chlorin extracts, alkenone and TEX86 distributions and temperature reconstruction, and terrestrial leaf wax characterization, using GC-FID, LC-MS, and spectrophotometry.
ContentMicropaleontology and Molecular paleontology
1. Introduction to the domains of life and molecular and mineral fossils. Genomic classifications of domains of life. Biosynthesis and molecular fossils and preservation/degradation. Biomineralization and mineral fossils and preservation/dissolution. Review of stable isotopes in biosynthesis.
2. The planktic niche – primary producers. Resources and challenges of primary production in the marine photic zone – light supply, nutrient supply, water column structure and niche partitioning. Ecological strategies and specialization, bloom succession, diversity and size gradients in the modern ocean. Introduction to principal mineralizing phytoplankton – diatoms, coccolithophores, dynoflagellates, as well as cyanobacteria. Molecular markers including alkenones, long-chain diols and sterols, IP25, pigments, diatom UV-absorbing compounds. Application of fossils and markers as environmental proxies. Long term evolutionary evidence for originations, radiations, and extinctions in microfossils and biomarkers; evolution of size trends in phytoplankton over Cenozoic, geochemical evidence for evolution of carbon concentrating mechanisms. Introduction to nannofossil biostratigraphy.
3. The planktic niche – heterotrophy from bacteria to zooplankton. Resources and challenges of planktic heterotrophy – food supply, oxygen availability, seasonal cycles, seasonal and vertical niche partitioning. Introduction to principal mineralizing zooplankton planktic foraminifera and radiolaria: ecological strategies and specialization, succession, diversity and size gradients in the modern ocean. Morphometry and adaptations for symbiont hosting. Molecular records such as isorenieratene and Crenoarcheota GDGT; the debate of TEX86 temperature production. Long term evolutionary evidence for originations, radiations, and extinctions in microfossils; evolution of size and form, basic biostratigraphy. Molecular evidence of evolution including diversification of sterol/sterine assemblages.
4. The benthic niche – continental margins. Resources and challenges of benthic heterotrophy – food supply, oxygen, turbulence and substrate. Principal mineralizing benthic organisms – benthic foraminifera and ostracods. Benthic habitat gradients (infaunal and epifaunal; shallow to deep margin. Microbial redox ladder in sediments. Molecular markers of methanogenesis and methanotrophy, Anamox markers, pristine/phytane redox indicator. Applications of benthic communities for sea level reconstructions. Major originations and extinctions.
5. The benthic niche in the abyssal ocean. Resources and challenges of deep benthic heterotrophy. Benthic foraminifera, major extinctions and turnover events. Relationship to deep oxygen level and productivity.
6. Terrestrial dry niches -soils and trees. Resources and challenges - impacts of temperature, humidity, CO2 and soil moisture on terrestrial vegetation and microbial reaction and turnover. Introduction to pollen and molecular markers for soil pH, humidity, leaf wax C3-C4 community composition and hydrology. Long term evolution of C4 pathway, markers for angiosperm and gymnosperm evolution.
7. Terrestrial aquatic environments – resources and challenges. Lake systems, seasonal mixing regimes, eutrophication, closed/open systems. Introduction to lacustrine diatoms, chironomids, testate amoeba. Molecular markers in lake/box environments including paleogenomics of communities.
Lecture notesA lab and lecture manual will be distributed at the start of the course and additional material will be available in the course Moodle
LiteratureKey references from primary literature will be provided as pdf on the course moodle.
Prerequisites / NoticeTiming: The course starts on February 19 and ends on May 28. Prerequisites: Recall and remember what you learned in introductory chemistry and biology
Electives
The students are free to choose individually from the entire course offer of ETH Zürich and the universities of Zürich and Bern.
Weather Systems and Atmospheric Dynamics
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1236-00LMeasurement Methods in Meteorology and Climate Research Information W1 credit1VM. Hirschi, D. Michel, S. I. Seneviratne
AbstractPhysical, technical, and theoretical basics for measuring physical quantities in the atmosphere. Considerations related to the planning of observation campaigns and to data evaluation.
ObjectiveBecome sensitive for specific problems when making measurements in the atmosphere under severe environmental conditions. Know the different methods and techniques, develop criteria for the choice of the optimal measurement method for a given problem. Find the optimal observation strategy in terms of choice of instrument, frequency of observation, accuracy, etc.
ContentProblems related to time series analysis, sampling theorem, time constant and sampling rate. Theoretical analysis of different sensors for temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure. Discussion of effects disturbing the instruments. Principles of active and passive remote sensing. Measuring turbulent fluxes (e.g. heatflux) using eddy-correlation technique. Discussion of technical realizations of complex observing systems (radiosondes, automatic weather stations, radar, wind profilers). Demonstration of instruments.
Lecture notesStudents can download a copy of the lectures as PDF-files.
Literature- Emeis, Stefan: Measurement Methods in Atmospheric Sciences, In situ and remote. Bornträger 2010, ISBN 978-3-443-01066-9
- Brock, F. V. and S. J. Richardson: Meteorological Measurement Systems, Oxford University Press 2001, ISBN 0-19-513451-6
- Thomas P. DeFelice: An Introduction to Meteorological Instrumentation and Measurement. Prentice-Hall 2000, 229 p., ISBN 0-13-243270-6
- Fritschen, L.J., Gay L.W.: Environmental Instrumentation, 216 p., Springer, New York 1979.
- Lenschow, D.H. (ed.): Probing the Atmospheric Boundary Layer, 269 p., American Meteorological Society, Boston MA 1986.
- Meteorological Office (publ.): Handbook of Meteorological Instruments, 8 vols., Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London 1980.
- Wang, J.Y., Felton, C.M.M.: Instruments for Physical Environmental measurements, 2 vol., 801 p., Kendall/Hunt Publ. Comp., Dubuque Iowa 1975/76.
Prerequisites / NoticeThe lecture focuses on physical atmospheric parameters while lecture 701-0234-00 concentrates on the chemical quantities. The lectures are complementary, together they provide the instrumental basics for the lab course 701-0460-00. Contact hours of the lab course are such that the lectures can be attended (which is recommended).
701-1266-00LWeather Discussion Restricted registration - show details
Limited number of participants.
Preference will be given to students on the masters level in Atmospheric and Climate Science and Environmental Sciences and doctoral students in Environmental Sciences.

Prerequisites: Basic knowledge in meteorology is required for this class, students are advised to take courses 702-0473-00L and/or 701-1221-00L before attending this course.
W2.5 credits2PH. Wernli
AbstractThis three-parts course includes: (i) concise units to update the students knowledge about key aspects of mid-latitude weather systems and numerical weather prediction, (ii) a concrete application of this knowledge to predict and discuss the "weather of the week", and (iii) an in-depth case study analysis, performed in small groups, of a remarkable past weather event.
ObjectiveStudents will learn how to elaborate a weather prediction and to cope with uncertainties of weather (probabilistic) prediction models. They will also learn how to apply theoretical concepts from other lecture courses on atmospheric dynamics to perform a detailed case study of a specific weather event, using state-of-the-art observational and model-derived products and datasets.
701-1280-00LSelf-learning Course on Advanced Topics in Atmospheric and Climate Science Restricted registration - show details
Please contact one of the professors listed under prerequisites/notice if you plan to take this course.

Students are allowed to enroll in both courses 701-1280-00L & 701-1281-00L Self-learning Course on Advanced Topics in Atmospheric and Climate Science but have to choose different supervisors.
W3 credits6ASupervisors
AbstractThis course offers an individual pathway to deepen knowledge and understanding of a specific advanced topic in atmospheric and climate science in one of these fields:
- atmospheric chemistry
- atmospheric circulation and predictability
- atmospheric dynamics
- atmospheric physics
- climate modeling
- climate physics
- land-climate dynamics
ObjectiveThe learning goals of this course are threefold: 1) obtain novel insight into an advanced scientific topic, 2) train the self-study competences in particular related to reading of advanced textbooks and writing a concise summary, and 3) gain experience in the scientific interaction with experts. The format of the course is complementary to other types of teaching (lectures and seminars) and addresses skills that are essential for a wide range of professional activities (including a PhD).
ContentThe course has the following elements:
Week 1: Selection of specific topic and decision about reading material (textbook chapters and maybe 1-2 review papers)
Week 2: General discussion about self-study skills (how to read scientific literature and write summaries; specifics of scientific writing; how to prepare efficient meetings). For the scientific writing, students are encouraged to participate in an online training course offered by Stanford University:
Link
Weeks 6 and 9: Meetings with supervisor to clarify scientific questions
Week 12: Hand-in of written summary (4 pages maximum)
Week 14: Supervisor provides written feedback to the summary document
Week 16: Oral exam about the scientific topic
LiteratureLiterature (including book chapters, scientific publications) will be provided by the responsible supervisor in coordination with the student.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites depend on the chosen field and include successful completion of the listed lecture courses:
• atmospheric dynamics: “Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow” (701-1221-00L)
• atmospheric chemistry: “Stratospheric Chemistry” (701-1233-00L) or “Tropospheric Chemistry” (701-1234-00L) or “Aerosols I” (402-0572-00L).
• atmospheric physics: “Atmospheric Physics” (701-0475-00L)
• climate physics: “Klimasysteme” (701-0412-00L) or equivalent
• land-climate dynamics: “Land-climate dynamics” (701-1251-00L)
• climate modeling: “Numerical modeling of weather and climate” (701-1216-00L) (parallel attendance possible)
• atmospheric circulation and predictability: “Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow” (701-1221-00L)

If you plan to take this course, please contact one of the professors according to your interest.
• atmospheric chemistry (Prof. T. Peter)
• atmospheric circulation and predictability (Prof. D. Domeisen)
• atmospheric dynamics (Prof. H. Wernli)
• atmospheric physics (Prof. U. Lohmann)
• climate modeling (Prof. C. Schär)
• climate physics (Prof. R. Knutti)
• land-climate dynamics (Prof. S. Seneviratne)
Climate Processes and Feedbacks
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1228-00LCloud Dynamics: Hurricanes Information W4 credits3GU. Lohmann
AbstractHurricanes are among the most destructive elements in the atmosphere. This lecture will discuss the physical requirements for their formation, life cycle, damage potential and their relationship to global warming. It also distinguishes hurricanes from thunderstorms and tornadoes.
ObjectiveAt the end of this course students will be able to distinguish the formation and life cycle mechanisms of tropical cyclones from those of extratropical thunderstorms/cyclones, project how tropical cyclones change in a warmer climate based on their physics and evaluate different tropical cyclone modification ideas.
Lecture notesSlides will be made available
LiteratureA literature list can be found here: Link
Prerequisites / NoticeAt least one introductory lecture in Atmospheric Science or Instructor's consent.
701-1280-00LSelf-learning Course on Advanced Topics in Atmospheric and Climate Science Restricted registration - show details
Please contact one of the professors listed under prerequisites/notice if you plan to take this course.

Students are allowed to enroll in both courses 701-1280-00L & 701-1281-00L Self-learning Course on Advanced Topics in Atmospheric and Climate Science but have to choose different supervisors.
W3 credits6ASupervisors
AbstractThis course offers an individual pathway to deepen knowledge and understanding of a specific advanced topic in atmospheric and climate science in one of these fields:
- atmospheric chemistry
- atmospheric circulation and predictability
- atmospheric dynamics
- atmospheric physics
- climate modeling
- climate physics
- land-climate dynamics
ObjectiveThe learning goals of this course are threefold: 1) obtain novel insight into an advanced scientific topic, 2) train the self-study competences in particular related to reading of advanced textbooks and writing a concise summary, and 3) gain experience in the scientific interaction with experts. The format of the course is complementary to other types of teaching (lectures and seminars) and addresses skills that are essential for a wide range of professional activities (including a PhD).
ContentThe course has the following elements:
Week 1: Selection of specific topic and decision about reading material (textbook chapters and maybe 1-2 review papers)
Week 2: General discussion about self-study skills (how to read scientific literature and write summaries; specifics of scientific writing; how to prepare efficient meetings). For the scientific writing, students are encouraged to participate in an online training course offered by Stanford University:
Link
Weeks 6 and 9: Meetings with supervisor to clarify scientific questions
Week 12: Hand-in of written summary (4 pages maximum)
Week 14: Supervisor provides written feedback to the summary document
Week 16: Oral exam about the scientific topic
LiteratureLiterature (including book chapters, scientific publications) will be provided by the responsible supervisor in coordination with the student.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites depend on the chosen field and include successful completion of the listed lecture courses:
• atmospheric dynamics: “Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow” (701-1221-00L)
• atmospheric chemistry: “Stratospheric Chemistry” (701-1233-00L) or “Tropospheric Chemistry” (701-1234-00L) or “Aerosols I” (402-0572-00L).
• atmospheric physics: “Atmospheric Physics” (701-0475-00L)
• climate physics: “Klimasysteme” (701-0412-00L) or equivalent
• land-climate dynamics: “Land-climate dynamics” (701-1251-00L)
• climate modeling: “Numerical modeling of weather and climate” (701-1216-00L) (parallel attendance possible)
• atmospheric circulation and predictability: “Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow” (701-1221-00L)

If you plan to take this course, please contact one of the professors according to your interest.
• atmospheric chemistry (Prof. T. Peter)
• atmospheric circulation and predictability (Prof. D. Domeisen)
• atmospheric dynamics (Prof. H. Wernli)
• atmospheric physics (Prof. U. Lohmann)
• climate modeling (Prof. C. Schär)
• climate physics (Prof. R. Knutti)
• land-climate dynamics (Prof. S. Seneviratne)
Atmospheric Composition and Cycles
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1244-00LAerosols II: Applications in Environment and TechnologyW4 credits2V + 1UJ. Slowik, U. Baltensperger, M. Gysel Beer
AbstractMajor topics: Important sources and sinks of atmospheric aerosols and their importance for men and environment. Particle emissions from combustion systems, means to reduce emissions like particle filters.
ObjectiveProfound knowledge about aerosols in the atmosphere and applications of aerosols in technology
ContentAtmospheric aerosols:
important sources and sinks, wet and dry deposition, chemical composition, importance for men and environment, interaction with the gas phase, influence on climate.
Technical aerosols:
combustion aerosols, techniques to reduce emissions, application of aerosols in technology
Lecture notesInformation is distributed during the lectures
Literature- Colbeck I. (ed.) Physical and Chemical Properties of Aerosols, Blackie Academic & Professional, London, 1998.
- Seinfeld, J.H., and S.N. Pandis, Atmospheric chemistry and physics, John Wiley, New York, (1998).
701-0234-00LAtmospheric Chemistry: Instruments and Measuring Techniques Information W1 credit1VU. Krieger
AbstractMeasuring Techniques: Environmental Monitoring, Trace Gas Detection, Remote Sensing, Aerosol Characterization, Techniques used in the laboratory.
ObjectiveFind out about the specific problems connected to composition measurements in the atmosphere. Working out criteria for selecting an optimal measuring strategy. Acquiring knowledge about different measuring methods their spectroscopic principles and of some specific instruments.
ContentEs werden Methoden und Geräte vorgestellt und theoretisch analysiert, die in atmosphärenchemischen Messungen Verwendung finden: Geräte zur Überwachung im Rahmen der Luftreinhalteverordnung, Spurengasanlysemethoden, "remote sensing", Aerosolmessgeräte, Messverfahren bei Labormessungen zu atmosphärischen Fragestellungen.
LiteratureB. J. Finnlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, "Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere", Academic Press, San Diego, 2000
Prerequisites / NoticeMethodenvorlesung zu den Praktika 701-0460-00 und 701-1230-00. Die Kontaktzeiten in diesen Praktika sind so abgestimmt, dass der (empfohlene) Besuch der Vorlesung möglich ist.

Voraussetzungen: Atmosphärenphysik I und II
651-4004-00LThe Global Carbon Cycle - ReducedW3 credits2GT. I. Eglinton, M. Lupker
AbstractThe carbon cycle connects different reservoirs of C, including life on Earth, atmospheric CO2, and economically important geological reserves of C. Much of this C is in reduced (organic) form, and is composed of complex chemical structures that reflect diverse biological activity, processes and transformations.
ObjectiveA wealth of information is held within the complex organic molecules, both in the context of the contemporary carbon cycle and its links to is other biogeochemical cycles, as well as in relation to Earth's history, the evolution of life and climate on this planet.

In this course we will learn about the role of reduced forms of carbon in the global cycle, how these forms of carbon are produced, move around the planet, and become sequestered in the geological record, and how they can be used to infer biological activity and conditions on this planet in the geologic past. The course encompasses a range of spatial and temporal scales, from molecular to global, and from the contemporary environment to earliest life.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course and the lecture course "651-4044-00L Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry" Link are good preparations for the combined Field-Lab Course ("651-4044-02 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Field Course" and "651-4044-01 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Lab Practical"). Details under Link
701-1240-00LModelling Environmental PollutantsW3 credits2GM. Scheringer, C. Bogdal
AbstractModeling the emissions, transport, partitioning and transformation/degradation of chemical contaminants in air, water and soil.
ObjectiveThis course is intended for students who are interested in the environmental fate and transport of volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals and exposure to pollutants in environmental media including air, water, soil and biota. The course focuses on the theory and application of mass-balance models of environmental pollutants. These models are quantitative tools for describing, understanding, and predicting the way pollutants interact with the environment. Important topics include thermodynamic and kinetic descriptions of chemical behavior in environmental systems; mechanisms of chemical degradation in air and other media; novel approaches to modeling chemical fate in a variety of environments, including lakes and rivers, generic regions, and at the global scale, and application of mass balance modeling principles to describe bioaccumulation of pollutants by fish and mammals.
ContentApplication of mass balance principles to chemicals in a system of coupled environmental media. Measurement and estimation of physico-chemical properties that determine the environmental behavior of chemicals. Thermodynamic and kinetic controls on the behavior of pollutants. Modeling environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential of chemicals, including a review of available empirical data on various degradation processes. Current issues in multimedia contaminant fate modeling and a case study of the student's choice.
Lecture notesMaterial to support the lectures will be distributed during the course.
LiteratureThere is no required text. The following texts are useful for background reading and additional information.
D. Mackay. Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach, 2nd Ed. 2001. CRC Press.
R. P. Schwarzenbach, P. M. Gschwend, D. M. Imboden. Environmental Organic Chemistry. 2nd Ed. 2003, John Wiley & Sons.
M. Scheringer. Persistence and spatial range of environmental chemicals: New ethical and scientific concepts for risk assessment. 2002. Wiley-VCH.
701-1317-00LGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles and ClimateW3 credits3GN. Gruber, M. Vogt
AbstractThe human-induced emissions of carbon dioxide has led to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that Earth likely has no’t seen for the last 30 million years. This course aims to investigate and understand the impact of humans on Earth's biogeochemical cycles with a focus on the carbon cycle and its interaction with the physical climate system for the past, the present, and the future.
ObjectiveThis course aims to investigate the nature of the interaction between biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean with climate and how this interaction has evolved over time and will change in the future. Students are expected to participate actively in the course, which includes the critical reading of the pertinent literature and class presentations.
ContentTopics discussed include: The anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle and climate. Response of land and oceanic ecosystems to past and future global changes; Interactions between biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean; Biogeochemical processes controlling carbon dioxide and oxygen in the ocean and atmosphere on time-scales from a few years to a few hundred thousand years.
Lecture notesSarmiento & Gruber (2006), Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press. Additional handouts will be provided as needed. see website: Link
LiteratureSarmiento & Gruber (2006), Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press, 526pp.

MacKenzie, F. T. (1999), Global biogeochemical cycles and the physical climate system, Global Change Instruction Program, UCAR, Boulder, CO, 69pp.

W. H. Schlesinger (1997), Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, Academic Press.

Original literature.
701-1280-00LSelf-learning Course on Advanced Topics in Atmospheric and Climate Science Restricted registration - show details
Please contact one of the professors listed under prerequisites/notice if you plan to take this course.

Students are allowed to enroll in both courses 701-1280-00L & 701-1281-00L Self-learning Course on Advanced Topics in Atmospheric and Climate Science but have to choose different supervisors.
W3 credits6ASupervisors
AbstractThis course offers an individual pathway to deepen knowledge and understanding of a specific advanced topic in atmospheric and climate science in one of these fields:
- atmospheric chemistry
- atmospheric circulation and predictability
- atmospheric dynamics
- atmospheric physics
- climate modeling
- climate physics
- land-climate dynamics
ObjectiveThe learning goals of this course are threefold: 1) obtain novel insight into an advanced scientific topic, 2) train the self-study competences in particular related to reading of advanced textbooks and writing a concise summary, and 3) gain experience in the scientific interaction with experts. The format of the course is complementary to other types of teaching (lectures and seminars) and addresses skills that are essential for a wide range of professional activities (including a PhD).
ContentThe course has the following elements:
Week 1: Selection of specific topic and decision about reading material (textbook chapters and maybe 1-2 review papers)
Week 2: General discussion about self-study skills (how to read scientific literature and write summaries; specifics of scientific writing; how to prepare efficient meetings). For the scientific writing, students are encouraged to participate in an online training course offered by Stanford University:
Link
Weeks 6 and 9: Meetings with supervisor to clarify scientific questions
Week 12: Hand-in of written summary (4 pages maximum)
Week 14: Supervisor provides written feedback to the summary document
Week 16: Oral exam about the scientific topic
LiteratureLiterature (including book chapters, scientific publications) will be provided by the responsible supervisor in coordination with the student.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites depend on the chosen field and include successful completion of the listed lecture courses:
• atmospheric dynamics: “Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow” (701-1221-00L)
• atmospheric chemistry: “Stratospheric Chemistry” (701-1233-00L) or “Tropospheric Chemistry” (701-1234-00L) or “Aerosols I” (402-0572-00L).
• atmospheric physics: “Atmospheric Physics” (701-0475-00L)
• climate physics: “Klimasysteme” (701-0412-00L) or equivalent
• land-climate dynamics: “Land-climate dynamics” (701-1251-00L)
• climate modeling: “Numerical modeling of weather and climate” (701-1216-00L) (parallel attendance possible)
• atmospheric circulation and predictability: “Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow” (701-1221-00L)

If you plan to take this course, please contact one of the professors according to your interest.
• atmospheric chemistry (Prof. T. Peter)
• atmospheric circulation and predictability (Prof. D. Domeisen)
• atmospheric dynamics (Prof. H. Wernli)
• atmospheric physics (Prof. U. Lohmann)
• climate modeling (Prof. C. Schär)
• climate physics (Prof. R. Knutti)
• land-climate dynamics (Prof. S. Seneviratne)
Climate History and Paleoclimatology
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-3424-00LSedimentology and StratigraphieW4 credits3GA. Gilli
AbstractIntroduction of a range of concepts in sedimentology, Earth's surface processes and sedimentary geology in terms of processes and products. Familiarize students with a range of erosional, transportational and depositional processes and environments. The typical facies of the main depositional environments will be introduced.
ObjectiveStudents know about physical, chemical and biogenic sediments and sedimentary rocks. They are familiar with important physical, chemical and biological apects of sedimentation in continental settings and in the marine environment. The have the fundamentals needed for analysis and interpretation of sediments and sedimentary rocks in the field.
ContentTeil I Marine and lakustrische Sedimente:
-pelagische Sedimente
-hemipelagische Sedimente
-kieslige Sedimente
-Flachwasserkarbonate: Fazies, Diagenese
-lakustische Sedimente
-Evaporite

Teil II klastische Sedimente
- Sediment Transport, Strukturen und Schichtformen
- Terrestrische, flachmarine und tiefmarine Ablagerungsbereiche, Prozesse und Ablagerungsstrukturen
- Diagenese von Sandstein
- Tongesteine
Lecture notesSedimentologie-Skript
Prerequisites / NoticeVorlesung "Dynamische Erde" oder vergleichbare Einführungsvorlesung
701-1317-00LGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles and ClimateW3 credits3GN. Gruber, M. Vogt
AbstractThe human-induced emissions of carbon dioxide has led to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that Earth likely has no’t seen for the last 30 million years. This course aims to investigate and understand the impact of humans on Earth's biogeochemical cycles with a focus on the carbon cycle and its interaction with the physical climate system for the past, the present, and the future.
ObjectiveThis course aims to investigate the nature of the interaction between biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean with climate and how this interaction has evolved over time and will change in the future. Students are expected to participate actively in the course, which includes the critical reading of the pertinent literature and class presentations.
ContentTopics discussed include: The anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle and climate. Response of land and oceanic ecosystems to past and future global changes; Interactions between biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean; Biogeochemical processes controlling carbon dioxide and oxygen in the ocean and atmosphere on time-scales from a few years to a few hundred thousand years.
Lecture notesSarmiento & Gruber (2006), Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press. Additional handouts will be provided as needed. see website: Link
LiteratureSarmiento & Gruber (2006), Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press, 526pp.

MacKenzie, F. T. (1999), Global biogeochemical cycles and the physical climate system, Global Change Instruction Program, UCAR, Boulder, CO, 69pp.

W. H. Schlesinger (1997), Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, Academic Press.

Original literature.
701-1280-00LSelf-learning Course on Advanced Topics in Atmospheric and Climate Science Restricted registration - show details
Please contact one of the professors listed under prerequisites/notice if you plan to take this course.

Students are allowed to enroll in both courses 701-1280-00L & 701-1281-00L Self-learning Course on Advanced Topics in Atmospheric and Climate Science but have to choose different supervisors.
W3 credits6ASupervisors
AbstractThis course offers an individual pathway to deepen knowledge and understanding of a specific advanced topic in atmospheric and climate science in one of these fields:
- atmospheric chemistry
- atmospheric circulation and predictability
- atmospheric dynamics
- atmospheric physics
- climate modeling
- climate physics
- land-climate dynamics
ObjectiveThe learning goals of this course are threefold: 1) obtain novel insight into an advanced scientific topic, 2) train the self-study competences in particular related to reading of advanced textbooks and writing a concise summary, and 3) gain experience in the scientific interaction with experts. The format of the course is complementary to other types of teaching (lectures and seminars) and addresses skills that are essential for a wide range of professional activities (including a PhD).
ContentThe course has the following elements:
Week 1: Selection of specific topic and decision about reading material (textbook chapters and maybe 1-2 review papers)
Week 2: General discussion about self-study skills (how to read scientific literature and write summaries; specifics of scientific writing; how to prepare efficient meetings). For the scientific writing, students are encouraged to participate in an online training course offered by Stanford University:
Link
Weeks 6 and 9: Meetings with supervisor to clarify scientific questions
Week 12: Hand-in of written summary (4 pages maximum)
Week 14: Supervisor provides written feedback to the summary document
Week 16: Oral exam about the scientific topic
LiteratureLiterature (including book chapters, scientific publications) will be provided by the responsible supervisor in coordination with the student.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites depend on the chosen field and include successful completion of the listed lecture courses:
• atmospheric dynamics: “Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow” (701-1221-00L)
• atmospheric chemistry: “Stratospheric Chemistry” (701-1233-00L) or “Tropospheric Chemistry” (701-1234-00L) or “Aerosols I” (402-0572-00L).
• atmospheric physics: “Atmospheric Physics” (701-0475-00L)
• climate physics: “Klimasysteme” (701-0412-00L) or equivalent
• land-climate dynamics: “Land-climate dynamics” (701-1251-00L)
• climate modeling: “Numerical modeling of weather and climate” (701-1216-00L) (parallel attendance possible)
• atmospheric circulation and predictability: “Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow” (701-1221-00L)

If you plan to take this course, please contact one of the professors according to your interest.
• atmospheric chemistry (Prof. T. Peter)
• atmospheric circulation and predictability (Prof. D. Domeisen)
• atmospheric dynamics (Prof. H. Wernli)
• atmospheric physics (Prof. U. Lohmann)
• climate modeling (Prof. C. Schär)
• climate physics (Prof. R. Knutti)
• land-climate dynamics (Prof. S. Seneviratne)
Hydrology and Water Cycle
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
102-0468-00LWatershed Modelling Information W3 credits2GP. Molnar
AbstractIntroduction to watershed modelling with applications of GIS in hydrology, the use of semi- and fully-distributed continuous watershed models, and their calibration and validation. The course contains substantive practical modelling experience in several assignments.
ObjectiveWatershed Modelling is a course in the Master of Science in Environmental Engineering Programme. It is a practical course in which the students learn to (a) use GIS in hydrological applications, (b) calibrate and validate models, (c) apply and interpret semi- and fully- distributed continuous watershed models, and (d) discuss several modelling case studies. This course is a follow up of Hydrology 2 and requires solid computer skills.
Content- Introduction to watershed modelling
- GIS in watershed modelling (ArcGIS exercise)
- Calibration and validation of models
- Semi-distributed modelling with PRMS (model description, application)
- Distributed watershed modelling with TOPKAPI (model description, application)
- Modelling applications and case studies (climate change scenarios, land use change, basin erosion)
Literature- Lecture presentations
- Exercise documentation
- Relevant scientific papers
all posted on the course website
701-1216-00LNumerical Modelling of Weather and Climate Information W4 credits3GC. Schär, N. Ban
AbstractThe course provides an introduction to weather and climate models. It discusses how these models are built addressing both the dynamical core and the physical parameterizations, and it provides an overview of how these models are used in numerical weather prediction and climate research. As a tutorial, students conduct a term project and build a simple atmospheric model using the language PYTHON.
ObjectiveAt the end of this course, students understand how weather and climate models are formulated from the governing physical principles, and how they are used for climate and weather prediction purposes.
ContentThe course provides an introduction into the following themes: numerical methods (finite differences and spectral methods); adiabatic formulation of atmospheric models (vertical coordinates, hydrostatic approximation); parameterization of physical processes (e.g. clouds, convection, boundary layer, radiation); atmospheric data assimilation and weather prediction; predictability (chaos-theory, ensemble methods); climate models (coupled atmospheric, oceanic and biogeochemical models); climate prediction. Hands-on experience with simple models will be acquired in the tutorials.
Lecture notesSlides and lecture notes will be made available at
Link
LiteratureList of literature will be provided.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: to follow this course, you need some basic background in atmospheric science, numerical methods (e.g., "Numerische Methoden in der Umweltphysik", 701-0461-00L) as well as experience in programming. Previous experience with PYTHON is useful but not required.
102-0448-00LGroundwater IIW6 credits4GM. Willmann, J. Jimenez-Martinez
AbstractThe course is based on the course 'Groundwater I' and is a prerequisite for a deeper understanding of groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems with a strong emphasis on numerical modeling.
ObjectiveThe course should enable students to understand advanced concepts of groundwater flow and transport and to apply groundwater flow and transport modelling.

the student should be able to
a) formulate practical flow and contaminant transport problems.

b) solve steady-state and transient flow and transport problems in 2 and 3 spatial dimensions using numerical codes based on the finite difference method and the finite element methods.

c) solve simple inverse flow problems for parameter estimation given measurements.

d) assess simple multiphase flow problems.

e) assess spatial variability of parameters and use of stochastic techniques in this task.

f) assess simple coupled reactive transport problems.
ContentIntroduction and basic flow and contaminant transport equation.

Numerical solution of the 3D flow equation using the finite difference method.

Numerical solution to the flow equation using the finite element equation

Numerical solution to the transport equation using the finite difference method.

Alternative methods for transport modeling like method of characteristics and the random walk method.

Two-phase flow and Unsaturated flow problems.

Spatial variability of parameters and its geostatistical representation -geostatistics and stochastic modelling.

Reactive transport modelling.
Lecture notesHandouts
Literature- Anderson, M. and W. Woessner, Applied Groundwater Modeling, Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 448 p., 2002

- J. Bear and A. Cheng, Modeling Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport, Springer, 2010

- Appelo, C.A.J. and D. Postma, Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution, Second Edition, Taylor & Francis, 2005

- Rubin, Y., Applied Stochastic Hydrology, Oxford University Press, 2003

- Chiang und Kinzelbach, 3-D Groundwater Modeling with PMWIN. Springer, 2001.
Prerequisites / NoticeEach afternoon will be divided into 2 h of lectures and 2h of exercises. Two thirds of the exercises of the course are organized as a computer workshop to get hands-on experience with groundwater modelling.
102-0488-00LWater Resources ManagementW3 credits2GP. Burlando
AbstractModern engineering approach to problems of sustainable water resources, planning and management of water allocation requires the understanding of modelling techniques that allow to account for comprehensive water uses (thereby including ecological needs) and stakeholders needs, long-term analysis and optimization. The course presents the most relevant approaches to address these problems.
ObjectiveThe course provides the essential knowledge and tools of water resources planning and management. Core of the course are the concepts of data analysis, simulation, optimization and reliability assessment in relation to water projects and sustainable water resources management.
ContentThe course is organized in four parts.
Part 1 is a general introduction to the purposes and aims of sustainable water resources management, problem understanding and tools identification.
Part 2 recalls Time Series Analysis and Linear Stochastic Models. An introduction to Nonlinear Time Series Analysis and related techniques will then be made in order to broaden the vision of how determinism and stochasticity might sign hydrological and geophysical variables.
Part 3 deals with the optimal allocation of water resources and introduces to several tools traditionally used in WRM, such as linear and dynamic programming. Special attention will be devoted to optimization (deterministic and stochastic) and compared to simulation techniques as design methods for allocation of water resources in complex and competitive systems, with focus on sustainability and stakeholders needs.
Part 4 will introduce to basic indexes used in economical and reliability analyses, and will focus on multicriteria analysis methods as a tool to assess the reliability of water systems in relation to design alternatives.
Lecture notesA copy of the lecture handouts will be available on the webpage of the course. Complementary documentation in the form of scientific and technical articles, as well as excerpts from books will be also made available.
LiteratureA number of book chapters and paper articles will be listed and suggested to read. They will also be part of discussion during the oral examination.
Prerequisites / NoticeSuggested relevant courses: Hydrologie I (or a similar content course) and Wasserhaushalt (Teil "Wasserwirtschaft", 4. Sem. UmweltIng., or a similar content course) for those students not belonging to Environmental Engineering.
701-1280-00LSelf-learning Course on Advanced Topics in Atmospheric and Climate Science Restricted registration - show details
Please contact one of the professors listed under prerequisites/notice if you plan to take this course.

Students are allowed to enroll in both courses 701-1280-00L & 701-1281-00L Self-learning Course on Advanced Topics in Atmospheric and Climate Science but have to choose different supervisors.
W3 credits6ASupervisors
AbstractThis course offers an individual pathway to deepen knowledge and understanding of a specific advanced topic in atmospheric and climate science in one of these fields:
- atmospheric chemistry
- atmospheric circulation and predictability
- atmospheric dynamics
- atmospheric physics
- climate modeling
- climate physics
- land-climate dynamics
ObjectiveThe learning goals of this course are threefold: 1) obtain novel insight into an advanced scientific topic, 2) train the self-study competences in particular related to reading of advanced textbooks and writing a concise summary, and 3) gain experience in the scientific interaction with experts. The format of the course is complementary to other types of teaching (lectures and seminars) and addresses skills that are essential for a wide range of professional activities (including a PhD).
ContentThe course has the following elements:
Week 1: Selection of specific topic and decision about reading material (textbook chapters and maybe 1-2 review papers)
Week 2: General discussion about self-study skills (how to read scientific literature and write summaries; specifics of scientific writing; how to prepare efficient meetings). For the scientific writing, students are encouraged to participate in an online training course offered by Stanford University:
Link
Weeks 6 and 9: Meetings with supervisor to clarify scientific questions
Week 12: Hand-in of written summary (4 pages maximum)
Week 14: Supervisor provides written feedback to the summary document
Week 16: Oral exam about the scientific topic
LiteratureLiterature (including book chapters, scientific publications) will be provided by the responsible supervisor in coordination with the student.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites depend on the chosen field and include successful completion of the listed lecture courses:
• atmospheric dynamics: “Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow” (701-1221-00L)
• atmospheric chemistry: “Stratospheric Chemistry” (701-1233-00L) or “Tropospheric Chemistry” (701-1234-00L) or “Aerosols I” (402-0572-00L).
• atmospheric physics: “Atmospheric Physics” (701-0475-00L)
• climate physics: “Klimasysteme” (701-0412-00L) or equivalent
• land-climate dynamics: “Land-climate dynamics” (701-1251-00L)
• climate modeling: “Numerical modeling of weather and climate” (701-1216-00L) (parallel attendance possible)
• atmospheric circulation and predictability: “Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow” (701-1221-00L)

If you plan to take this course, please contact one of the professors according to your interest.
• atmospheric chemistry (Prof. T. Peter)
• atmospheric circulation and predictability (Prof. D. Domeisen)
• atmospheric dynamics (Prof. H. Wernli)
• atmospheric physics (Prof. U. Lohmann)
• climate modeling (Prof. C. Schär)
• climate physics (Prof. R. Knutti)
• land-climate dynamics (Prof. S. Seneviratne)
Prerequisites
The definition of prerequisites is part of the admission procedure for the master studies. You are informed by the admission office as to what courses of the section «prerequisites» you have to catch up with. You are accredited for these courses in the electives block of the master studies.
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-0412-00LClimate SystemsW3 credits2GR. Knutti, I. Medhaug
AbstractThis course introduces the most important physical components of the climate system and their interactions. The mechanisms of anthropogenic climate change are analysed against the background of climate history and variability. Those completing the course will be in a position to identify and explain simple problems in the area of climate systems.
ObjectiveStudents are able
- to describe the most important physical components of the global climate system and sketch their interactions
- to explain the mechanisms of anthropogenic climate change
- to identify and explain simple problems in the area of climate systems
Lecture notesCopies of the slides are provided in electronic form.
LiteratureA comprehensive list of references is provided in the class. Two books are
particularly recommended:
- Hartmann, D., 2016: Global Physical Climatology. Academic Press, London, 485 pp.
- Peixoto, J.P. and A.H. Oort, 1992: Physics of Climate. American Institute of Physics, New York, 520 pp.
Prerequisites / NoticeTeaching: Reto Knutti, several keynotes to special topics by other professors
Course taught in german, slides in english
Additional Electives ETH
» Course Catalogue of ETH Zurich
Minors
Minor in Physical Glaciology
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-1504-00LSnowcover: Physics and ModellingW4 credits3GM. Schneebeli, H. Löwe
AbstractSnow is a fascinating high-temperature material and relevant for applications in glaciology, hydrology, atmospheric sciences, polar climatology, remote sensing and natural hazards. This course introduces key concepts and underlying physical principles of snow, ranging from individual crystals to polar ice sheets.
ObjectiveThe course aims at a cross-disciplinary overview about the phenomenology of relevant processes in the snow cover, traditional and advanced experimental methods for snow measurements and theoretical foundations with key equations required for snow modeling. Tutorials and short presentations will also consider the bigger picture of snow physics with respect to climatology, hydrology and earth science.
ContentThe lectures will treat snow formation, crystal growth, snow microstructure, metamorphism, ice physics, snow mechanics, heat and mass transport in the snowcover, surface energy balance, snow models, wind transport, snow chemistry, electromagnetic properties, experimental techniques.

The tutorials include a demonstration/exercise part and a presentation part. The demonstration/exercise part consolidates key subjects of the lecture by means of small data sets, mathematical toy models, order of magnitude estimates, image analysis and visualization, small simulation examples, etc. The presentation part comprises short presentations (about 15 min) based on selected papers in the subject.

First practical experience with modern methods measuring snow properties can be acquired in a field excursion.
Lecture notesLecture notes and selected publications.
Prerequisites / NoticeWe offer a field excursion to Davos on Saturday, March 23, 2019, in Davos. We will demonstrate traditional and modern field-techniques (snow profile, Near-infrared photography, SnowMicroPen) and you will have the chance to use the instruments yourself. The excursion includes a visit of the SLF cold laboratories with the micro-tomography setup and the snowmaker.
101-0288-00LSnow and Avalanches: Processes and Risk ManagementW3 credits2GJ. Schweizer, S. L. Margreth
AbstractThe lecture covers snow and avalanche processes in a catchment (starting zone, path and run-out zone) with a particular focus on risk management in the context of natural hazards.
Objective- basics of snow and avalanche mechanics
- methods to model snow and avalanche processes
- interaction of snow and avalanches with structures and forest
- methods of stability evaluation and hazard assessment
- avalanche protection measures in the context of integral risk management
- basics on the design and effectiveness of protection measures
ContentIntroduction, snow precipitation, extreme events, snow loads; snow and snow cover properties; snow-atmosphere interaction; avalanche formation; stability evaluation, avalanche forecasting; avalanche dynamics; avalanche impact on structures; hazard mapping; protection measures (permanent and temporal); integral risk management.
LiteratureArmstrong, R.L. and Brun, E. (Editors), 2008. Snow and Climate - Physical processes, surface energy exchange and modeling. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 222 pp.

BUWAL/SLF, 1984. Richtlinien zur Berücksichtigung der Lawinengefahr bei raumwirksamen Tätigkeiten. EDMZ, Bern.

Egli, T., 2005. Wegleitung Objektschutz gegen gravitative Naturgefahren, Vereinigung Kantonaler Feuerversicherungen (Hrsg.), Bern.

Fierz, C., Armstrong, R.L., Durand , Y., Etchevers, P., Greene, E., McClung, D.M., Nishimura, K., Satyawali, P.K. and Sokratov, S.A., 2009. The International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground. HP-VII Technical Documents in Hydrology, 83. UNESCO-IHP, Paris, France, 90 pp.

Furukawa, Y. and Wettlaufer, J.S., 2007. Snow and ice crystals. Physics Today, 60(12): 70-71.

Margreth, S., 2007. Technische Richtlinie für den Lawinenverbau im Anbruchgebiet. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Bern, WSL Eidg. Institut für Schnee- und Lawinenforschung Davos. 134 S.

McClung. D.M. and Schaerer, P. 2006. The Avalanche Handbook, 3rd ed., The Mountaineers, Seattle.

Mears, A.I., 1992. Snow-avalanche hazard analysis for land-use planning and engineering. 49, Colorado Geological Survey.

Schweizer, J., Bartelt, P. and van Herwijnen, A., 2015. Snow avalanches. In: W. Haeberli and C. Whiteman (Editors), Snow and Ice-Related Hazards, Risks and Disasters. Hazards and Disaster Series. Elsevier, pp. 395-436.

Schweizer, J., Jamieson, J.B. and Schneebeli, M., 2003. Snow avalanche formation. Reviews of Geophysics, 41(4): 1016, doi:10.1029/2002RG000123.

Shapiro, L.H., Johnson, J.B., Sturm, M. and Blaisdell, G.L., 1997. Snow mechanics - Review of the state of knowledge and applications. Report 97-3, US Army CRREL, Hanover, NH, U.S.A.
Prerequisites / NoticeFull-day excursion (not mandatory) to Davos, hands-on experience on selected topcis, visit at WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF (early March 2019)
651-4090-00LQuantification and Modeling of the Cryosphere: Spatial and Thermal Processes (University of Zurich)
No enrolment to this course at ETH Zurich. Book the corresponding module directly at UZH.
UZH Module Code: GEO413

Mind the enrolment deadlines at UZH:
Link
W6 credits2PUniversity lecturers
Abstract
Objective
ContentDer Kurs ist sehr praktisch ausgelegt und es arbeiten in der Regel zwei Teilnehmer als Team an einem Computer. Für jede Lektion gibt es eine Informationsseite in Internet. Auf diesen Seiten sind die jeweils nötigen Information (Anleitungen, Datenzugang etc.) zugänglich. Zusätzlich sind für jede Stunde drei weitere Dinge
aufgelistet: 1) Voraussetzungen, 2) Vorbereitung und 3) Prüfungsrelevanter Stoff. Unter „Voraussetzungen“ sind Begriffe und Konzepte genannt, deren Verständnis für die Stunde wichtig sind und die als (von anderen Veranstaltungen) bekannt vorausgesetzt werden.
Unter „Vorbereitung“ sind z.B. Publikationen angegeben, die vor der Stunde gelesen werden sollen und Teil des Unterrichts sind. Unter „Prüfungsrelevanter Stoff“ finden Sie eine Liste der Techniken, Methoden und Konzepte, die Sie für die Prüfung beherrschen müssen.
Lecture notesDie Unterlagen sind auf dem Web verfügbar. Der Zugang wird in der Vorlesung bekannt gegeben.
651-4162-00LField Course Glaciology Information
Priority is given to D-ERDW students. If space is available UZH Geography and Earth System Sciences students may attend this field course at full cost.

No registration through myStudies. The registration for excursions and field courses goes through Link only.
W3 credits6PA. Bauder, D. Farinotti, M. Werder
AbstractIntroduction to investigation methods in glaciology with both theory and experimental application. The students design, plan, sample, evaluate and present the results of own individual projects.
Objective- Introduction to measurement techniques in glaciology
- Experience with realisation of measurement and data analysis
- Interpretation and presentation of results
ContentThe course covers methodologies and techniques to analyse physical conditions of glaciers and their evolution. Basic measurement techniques of surveying,drilling as well as working with sensors and data loggers are introduced. Covered fields include topographical setting, mass balance, glacier fluctuations, ice flow and glacier hydrology.
The course starts with an introduction toward the end of the spring semester and is followd by 7 days in september including lectures at ETH and a field work on Rhonegletscher.
Prerequisites / NoticeSome basic knowledge in glaciology e.g. course 651-3561-00L Kryosphäre is recommended.
This field course is organized in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido in Sapporo.

Students registering for the course confirm having read and accepted the terms and conditions for excursions and field courses of D-ERDW Link
Minor in Biogeochemistry
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1317-00LGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles and ClimateW3 credits3GN. Gruber, M. Vogt
AbstractThe human-induced emissions of carbon dioxide has led to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that Earth likely has no’t seen for the last 30 million years. This course aims to investigate and understand the impact of humans on Earth's biogeochemical cycles with a focus on the carbon cycle and its interaction with the physical climate system for the past, the present, and the future.
ObjectiveThis course aims to investigate the nature of the interaction between biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean with climate and how this interaction has evolved over time and will change in the future. Students are expected to participate actively in the course, which includes the critical reading of the pertinent literature and class presentations.
ContentTopics discussed include: The anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle and climate. Response of land and oceanic ecosystems to past and future global changes; Interactions between biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean; Biogeochemical processes controlling carbon dioxide and oxygen in the ocean and atmosphere on time-scales from a few years to a few hundred thousand years.
Lecture notesSarmiento & Gruber (2006), Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press. Additional handouts will be provided as needed. see website: Link
LiteratureSarmiento & Gruber (2006), Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press, 526pp.

MacKenzie, F. T. (1999), Global biogeochemical cycles and the physical climate system, Global Change Instruction Program, UCAR, Boulder, CO, 69pp.

W. H. Schlesinger (1997), Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, Academic Press.

Original literature.
Minor in Global Change and Sustainability
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
860-0012-00LCooperation and Conflict Over International Water Resources Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 40.
STP students have priority.

This is a research seminar at the Master level. PhD students are also welcome.
W3 credits2S + 2AB. Wehrli, R. Athavale, T. Bernauer
AbstractThis seminar focuses on the technical, economic, and political challenges of dealing with water allocation and pollution problems in large international river systems. It examines ways and means through which such challenges are addressed, and when and why international efforts in this respect succeed or fail.
ObjectiveAbility to (1) understand the causes and consequences of water scarcity and water pollution problems in large international river systems; (2) understand ways and means of addressing such water challenges; and (3) analyse when and why international efforts in this respect succeed or fail.
ContentBased on lectures and discussion of scientific papers and reports, students acquire basic knowledge on contentious issues in managing international water resources, on the determinants of cooperation and conflict over international water issues, and on ways and means of mitigating conflict and promoting cooperation. Students will then, in small teams coached by the instructors, carry out research on a case of their choice (i.e. an international river basin where riparian countries are trying to find solutions to water allocation and/or water quality problems associated with a large dam project). They will write a brief paper and present their findings towards the end of the semester.
Lecture notesSlides and reading materials will be distributed electronically.
LiteratureThe UN World Water Development Reports provide a broad overview of the topic: Link
Prerequisites / NoticeThe course is open to Master and PhD students from any area of ETH.

ISTP students who take this course should also register for the course 860-0012-01L - Cooperation and conflict over international water resources; In-depth case study.
751-5118-00LGlobal Change BiologyW2 credits2GH. Bugmann, S. Burri, M. Gharun, G. Petter
AbstractThis course focuses on the impacts of global change on forests and agro-ecosystems that will strongly affect sustainable resource use across the 21st century.
ObjectiveStudents will understand how global change, ecosystem processes, land use practices, politics, and society interact, and that it is critical to act responsibly and work as an agricultural or environmental scientist in the future.

Students will better understand the impacts of global change on ecosystems at a range of spatial and temporal scales, be able to synthesize knowledge from various disciplines in the context of global change issues, and be able to evaluate management options for sustainable resource use, climate mitigation and adaptation options.

Students will learn to present scientific information to a scientific audience by preparing an executive summary and an oral presentation to answer a specific scientific question. Students will get extensive feedback from teachers and peers. Thereby, students will also learn how to give constructive feedback to peers.
ContentChanges in climate and land use are major issues that students will be faced with during their working life, independently of where they will work. Thus, an advanced understanding on how global change, ecosystem processes, land use practices, politics, and society interact and that it is critical to act responsibly and work as an agricultural or environmental scientist in the future.

Thus, during this course, the effects of global change on forests and agro-ecosystems as well as their feedbacks to the climate system will be presented and discussed. Effects on ecosystem structure, composition, productivity and biogeochemical cycling, but also on the stability of production systems against disturbances will be addressed.

Up-to-date scenarios and models for coupled human-environmental systems will be discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of different management options will be evaluated, including sustainable resource use and climate mitigation as well as adaptation.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course is based on fundamental knowledge about plant ecophysiology, soil science, and ecology in general.
Minor in Sustainable Energy Use
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-0962-02LEnergy Technology and EnvironmentW3 credits2V + 1KT. Nussbaumer
AbstractThe lecture gives an introduction to the role of energy for climate and air pollution. Based on thermodynamic fundamentals of energy conversion processes, technologies for heat and power production, a special focus on energy savings in buildings, solar energy, bioenergy, as well as improvements by new technologies and measures for pollutant reduction are presented.
ObjectiveAim of the lecture is a basic knowledge of the main energy conversion processes, the thermodynamic limits of nowadays and future technologies, the environmental impacts resulting from energy technologies, and measures for efficiency improvements and pollutant reduction as well as implementation of renewable energies.
Content- Thermodynamics for energy conversion processes.
- Primary resources and energy demand.
- Life cycle assessment of energy chains.
- Energy savings in buildings.
- Technologies for heat and power production from fossil fuels and from renewable energy sources.
- Principles and applications of conversion technologies, i.e., combustion engines, gas turbine, steam cycles, combined heat and power production, heat pump, fuel cells.
- Fundamentals of combustion processes, pollutant formation and reduction.
- Application of renewable energies with focus on solar energy and bioenergy.
Lecture notesScript (400 p.) is available as pdf.
Exercices are distributed weekly and discussed in the following week. A solution is distributed in the lecture.
Literature- Diekmann, B.; Heinloth, K.: Energie, 2. Auflage, Teubner-Verlag Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3519130572
- Quaschning 2008, Volker: Regenerative Energiesysteme, 5. Auflage, Hanser, München 2007
- Kugeler, K; Phlippen, P.: Energietechnik, Springer1990 und Springer 1992 (2. Auflage)
227-0730-00LPower Market II - Modeling and Strategic PositioningW6 credits4GD. Reichelt, G. A. Koeppel
AbstractOptions in the electricity business
Portfolio and risk management: valuation of hedging strategies, risk assessment
Hydropower optimization and hedging
Valuation of power plants with real options
Capacity markets and quota Systems
Complex energy contracts with embedded options
Strategy and positioning for utilities
ObjectiveThe students know the main derivatives applied in the electricity business. They are able to est up hedging strategies and can evaluate them. They habe a basic understanding of the optimization of large, complex hydro power plants, of capacity markets and of quota systems. They know the discounted cash-flow method and real options to assess the value of power plants. The students are able to identify the components of complex energy supply contracts and to assess the risk.
ContentOptions in the electricity business: option valuation with binominal trees, Black-Scholes formula, sensitivities (Greeks), implied volatility
Portfolio and risk management: delta- and gamma-neutral hedging, valuation of hedging strategies, risk assessment (case study)
Hydropower optimization and hedging
Valuation of assets (power plants, grids), DCF method, real options
Strategy and Positioning: Mini cases (group work)
Capacity markets and Quota Systems
Application of derivatives: complex energy contracts with embedded options, development of sales-oriented products
Credit Risk Management
Electricity marketing
Lecture notesHandouts - all material in English
Prerequisites / Notice2 day excursion, presentations of invited speakers from the industry

Moodle: Link
529-0191-01LRenewable Energy Technologies II, Energy Storage and Conversion
The lectures Renewable Energy Technologies I (529-0193-00L) and Renewable Energy Technologies II (529-0191-01L) can be taken independently from one another.
W4 credits3GT. Schmidt, L. Gubler
AbstractGlobal & Swiss energy system. Storage: Pumped water, flywheels, compressed air. Hydrogen as energy carrier; electrolysis; power-to-gas. Fuel cells: from fundamentals to systems; Fuel cell vehicles; electrochemical storage in batteries. supercapacitors and redox flow cells; electromobility. The main focus of the lecture will be on electrochemical energy conversion and storage.
ObjectiveStudents will recognize the importance of energy storage in an industrial energy system, specifically in the context of a future system based on renewable sources. The efficient generation of electricity from hydrogen in fuel cells, and the efficient energy storage in batteries and supercapacitors will be introduced. Students will get a detailed insight into electrochemical energy conversion and storage, which will play an important role in future energy systems.
Literature- Tester, J.W., Drake, E.M., Golay, M.W., Driscoll, M.J., Peters, W.A.: Sustainable Energy - Choosing Among Options (MIT Press, 2005).
- C.H. Hamann, A. Hamnett, W. Vielstich; Electrochemistry, Wiley-VCH (2007).
- K. Krischer, K. Schönleber: Physiccs of Energy Conversion, De Gruyter (2015)
- R. Schlögl, Chemical Energy Storage, De Gruyter (2013)
Prerequisites / NoticePlease note that this is a 3 hours/week lecture including exercises, i.e., exercises will be included and are not separated. It is therefore highly recommended to attend the full 3 hours every week.

Participating students are required to have basic knowlegde of chemistry and thermodynamics.
363-0514-00LEnergy Economics and Policy
It is recommended for students to have taken a course in introductory microeconomics. If not, they should be familiar with microeconomics as in, for example,"Microeconomics" by Mankiw & Taylor and the appendices 4 and 7 of the book "Microeconomics" by Pindyck & Rubinfeld.
W3 credits2GM. Filippini
AbstractAn introduction to principles of energy economics and applications using energy policies: demand analysis, economic analysis of energy investments and cost analysis, economics of fossil fuels, economics of electricity, economics of renewable energy, market and behavioral failures and energy policy, market-based and non-market based instruments and regulation of energy industries.
ObjectiveThe students will develop the understanding of economic principles and tools necessary to analyze energy issues and to formulate energy policy instruments. Emphasis will be put on empirical analysis of energy demand and supply, market failures, behavioral economics, energy policy instruments, investments in power plants and in energy efficiency technologies and the reform of the electric power sector.
ContentThe course provides an introduction to energy economics principles and policy applications. The core topics are
-Demand analysis
-Behavioral analysis of the energy sector
-Economic analysis of energy investments and cost analysis
-Economics of fossil fuels
-Economics of electricity
-Economics of renewable energies
-Market failures and energy policy
-Market oriented and non-market oriented instruments
-Regulation of energy industries
Prerequisites / NoticeIt is recommended for students to have taken a course in introductory microeconomics. If not, they should be familiar with microeconomics as in, for example, "Microeconomics" by Mankiw & Taylor and the appendices 4 and 7 of the book "Microeconomics" by Pindyck & Rubinfeld.
151-0928-00LCO2 Capture and Storage and the Industry of Carbon-Based ResourcesW4 credits3GM. Mazzotti, L. Bretschger, N. Gruber, C. Müller, M. Repmann, T. Schmidt, D. Sutter
AbstractCarbon-based resources (coal, oil, gas): origin, production, processing, resource economics. Climate change: science, policies. CCS systems: CO2 capture in power/industrial plants, CO2 transport and storage. Besides technical details, economical, legal and societal aspects are considered (e.g. electricity markets, barriers to deployment).
ObjectiveThe goal of the lecture is to introduce carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) systems, the technical solutions developed so far and the current research questions. This is done in the context of the origin, production, processing and economics of carbon-based resources, and of climate change issues. After this course, students are familiar with important technical and non-technical issues related to use of carbon resources, climate change, and CCS as a transitional mitigation measure.

The class will be structured in 2 hours of lecture and one hour of exercises/discussion. At the end of the semester a group project is planned.
ContentBoth the Swiss and the European energy system face a number of significant challenges over the coming decades. The major concerns are the security and economy of energy supply and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuels will continue to satisfy the largest part of the energy demand in the medium term for Europe, and they could become part of the Swiss energy portfolio due to the planned phase out of nuclear power. Carbon capture and storage is considered an important option for the decarbonization of the power sector and it is the only way to reduce emissions in CO2 intensive industrial plants (e.g. cement- and steel production).
Building on the previously offered class "Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS)", we have added two specific topics: 1) the industry of carbon-based resources, i.e. what is upstream of the CCS value chain, and 2) the science of climate change, i.e. why and how CO2 emissions are a problem.
The course is devided into four parts:
I) The first part will be dedicated to the origin, production, and processing of conventional as well as of unconventional carbon-based resources.
II) The second part will comprise two lectures from experts in the field of climate change sciences and resource economics.
III) The third part will explain the technical details of CO2 capture (current and future options) as well as of CO2 storage and utilization options, taking again also economical, legal, and sociatel aspects into consideration.
IV) The fourth part will comprise two lectures from industry experts, one with focus on electricity markets, the other on the experiences made with CCS technologies in the industry.
Throughout the class, time will be allocated to work on a number of tasks related to the theory, individually, in groups, or in plenum. Moreover, the students will apply the theoretical knowledge acquired during the course in a case study covering all the topics.
Lecture notesPower Point slides and distributed handouts
LiteratureIPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, 2018.
Link

IPCC AR5 Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report, 2014. Link

IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage, 2005. Link

The Global Status of CCS: 2014. Published by the Global CCS Institute, Nov 2014.
Link
Prerequisites / NoticeExternal lecturers from the industry and other institutes will contribute with specialized lectures according to the schedule distributed at the beginning of the semester.
Seminars and Colloquia
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4095-01LColloquium Atmosphere and Climate 1 Information Restricted registration - show details O1 credit1KC. Schär, H. Wernli, D. N. Bresch, D. Domeisen, N. Gruber, H. Joos, R. Knutti, U. Lohmann, T. Peter, S. I. Seneviratne, K. Steffen, M. Wild
AbstractThe colloquium is a series of scientific talks by prominent invited speakers assembling interested students and researchers from around Zürich. Students take part of the scientific discussions.
ObjectiveThe colloquium is a series of scientific talks by prominent invited speakers assembling interested students and researchers from around Zürich. Students take part of the scientific discussions.
Prerequisites / NoticeTo acquire credit points for this colloquium, please visit the course's web page and sign up for one of the groups.
651-4095-02LColloquium Atmosphere and Climate 2 Information Restricted registration - show details O1 credit1KC. Schär, H. Wernli, D. N. Bresch, D. Domeisen, N. Gruber, H. Joos, R. Knutti, U. Lohmann, T. Peter, S. I. Seneviratne, K. Steffen, M. Wild
AbstractThe colloquium is a series of scientific talks by prominent invited speakers assembling interested students and researchers from around Zürich. Students take part of the scientific discussions.
ObjectiveThe colloquium is a series of scientific talks by prominent invited speakers assembling interested students and researchers from around Zürich. Students take part of the scientific discussions.
Prerequisites / NoticeTo acquire credit points for this colloquium, please visit the course's web page and sign up for one of the groups.
651-4095-03LColloquium Atmosphere and Climate 3 Information Restricted registration - show details O1 credit1KC. Schär, H. Wernli, D. N. Bresch, D. Domeisen, N. Gruber, H. Joos, R. Knutti, U. Lohmann, T. Peter, S. I. Seneviratne, K. Steffen, M. Wild
AbstractThe colloquium is a series of scientific talks by prominent invited speakers assembling interested students and researchers from around Zürich. Students take part of the scientific discussions.
ObjectiveThe colloquium is a series of scientific talks by prominent invited speakers assembling interested students and researchers from around Zürich. Students take part of the scientific discussions.
Prerequisites / NoticeTo acquire credit points for this colloquium, please visit the course's web page and sign up for one of the groups.
701-1211-01LMaster's Seminar: Atmosphere and Climate 1 Restricted registration - show details O3 credits2SH. Joos, I. Medhaug, O. Stebler, M. A. Wüest
AbstractIn this seminar the knowledge exchange between you and the other students is promoted. You attend lectures on scientific writing and you train your scientific writing skills by writing a proposal for your Master thesis. You receive critical and constructive feedback through the review by your future supervisors.
ObjectiveScientific writing skills
How to effectively write a scientific proposal.
ContentIn this seminar the knowledge exchange between you and the other students is promoted. You attend lectures on scientific writing and you train your scientific writing skills by writing a proposal for your MSc thesis. You receive critical and constructive feedback through the review by your future supervisors.
Prerequisites / NoticePlease register for this seminar 1 in the semester before writing your MSc thesis.
Attendance is mandatory.
701-1211-02LMaster's Seminar: Atmosphere and Climate 2 Restricted registration - show details O3 credits2SH. Joos, I. Medhaug, O. Stebler, M. A. Wüest
AbstractThis seminar brings the students working on their Master thesis together. Students present their Master thesis project including an overview of the outline and the first scientific results. In this seminar presentation skills and visualization techniques are trained and methods of scientific project management are introduced and applied to your Master project.
ObjectiveThis seminar brings the students working on their MSc thesis together. Students present their MSc thesis project including an overview of the outline and the first scientific results. In this seminar presentation skills and visualization techniques are trained and methods of scientific project management are introduced and applied to your MSc project.
ContentThis seminar brings the students working on their MSc thesis together. Students present their MSc thesis project including an overview of the outline and the first scientific results. In this seminar presentation skills and visualization techniques are trained and methods of scientific project management are introduced and applied to your MSc project.
Prerequisites / NoticePlease register for this seminar 2 in the semester in which you work on your MSc thesis.
Attendance is mandatory
Laboratory and Field Courses
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1260-00LClimatological and Hydrological Field Work Information Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 30.
W2.5 credits5PL. Gudmundsson, D. Michel, S. I. Seneviratne
AbstractPractical work using selected measurement techniques in meteorology and hydrology. The course consists of field work with different measuring systems to determine turbulence, radiation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, discharge and the atmospheric state as well as of data analysis.
ObjectiveLearning of elementary concepts and practical experience with meteorological and hydrological measuring systems as well as data analysis.
ContentPractical work using selected measurement techniques in meteorology and hydrology. The course consists of field work with different measuring systems to determine turbulence, radiation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, discharge and the atmospheric state as well as of data analysis.
Prerequisites / NoticeThe course takes place in the hydrological research catchment Rietholzbach (field work) and at ETH (data analysis) as a block course.
701-1262-00LAtmospheric Chemistry Lab Work Restricted registration - show details W2.5 credits5PC. Marcolli, U. Krieger, T. Peter
AbstractExperiments are carried out to investigate the freezing of water droplets and ice cloud formation. Water-in-oil emulsions are prepared and cooled in a DSC (differential scanning calorimeter). The measured freezing temperatures are put in context with cloud formation in the atmosphere.
ObjectiveThis practical course offers the opportunity to get to know lab work on a topic of atmospheric importance.
ContentCirrus clouds play an important role in the radiative budget of the Earth. Due to scattering and absorption of the solar as well as terrestrial radiation the cirrus cloud cover may influence significantly the Earth climate. How the cirrus clouds exactly form, is still unknown. Ice particles in cirrus clouds may form by homogeneous ice nucleation from liquid aerosols or via heterogeneous ice nucleation on solid ice nuclei (IN). The dihydrate of oxalic acid (OAD) acts as a heterogeneous ice nucleus, with an increase in freezing temperature between 2 and 5K depending on solution composition. In several field campaigns, oxalic acid enriched particles have been detected in the upper troposphere with single particle aerosol mass spectrometry. Simulations with a microphysical box model indicate that the presence of OAD may reduce the ice particle number density in cirrus clouds by up to ~50% when compared to exclusively homogeneous cirrus formation without OAD.
The goal of this atmospheric chemistry lab work is to expand the knowledge about the influence of oxalic acid in different aqueous solution systems for the heterogeneous ice nucleation process. Experiments of emulsified aqueous solutions containing oxalic acid will be performed with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, TA Instruments Q10). Water-in-oil emulsions contain a high number of micrometer-sized water droplets. Each droplet freezes independently which allows the measurement of homogeneous freezing for droplets without heterogeneous IN and heterogeneous freezing in the presence of an IN. OAD is formed in-situ in a first freezing cycle and will act as an IN in a second freezing cycle. This experiment will be performed in the presence of different solutes. In general, the presence of a solute leads to a decrease of the freezing temperature. However, also more specific interactions with oxalic acid are possible so that e.g. the formation of OAD is inhibited.
In the atmospheric chemistry lab work experiments, emulsified aqueous oxalic acid solutions are prepared and investigated in the DSC during several freezing cycles. The onset of freezing is evaluated. Freezing onsets in the presence and absence of OAD are compared. This is done for pure oxalic acid solutions and oxalic acid solutions containing a second solute (e.g. another dicarboxylic acid). The quality of the emulsions is checked in an optical microscope.
Lecture notesHand-outs will be distributed during the course
LiteratureOxalic acid as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in the upper troposphere and its indirect aerosol effect,
B. Zobrist C. Marcolli, T. Koop, B. P. Luo, D. M. Murphy, U. Lohmann, A. A. Zardini, U. K. Krieger, T. Corti, D. J. Cziczo, S. Fueglistaler, P. K. Hudson, D. S. Thomson, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3115–3129, 2006.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis module may be attended by 8 students at most. Practical work is carried out in groups of 2, max. 3.
701-1264-00LAtmospheric Physics Lab Work Information Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 18.

Target grous are: MSc Atmospheric and Climate Science, MSc Interdisciplinary Sciences, MSc Physics, MSc Environmental Sciences.
W2.5 credits5PZ. A. Kanji
AbstractExperiments covering atmospheric physics, meteorology, and aeerosol physics which will be performed in the lab and partly outdoors.
ObjectiveThis course delivers inisghts into various aspects of atmospheric physics. These will be acquired within individual experiments which cover the following topics: Wind and movement of air parcels, evaporation and cooling depending on wind velocity (wind chill), the analysis of particulate matter (aerosol particles), and their influence on the solar radiation that reaches the earth.
ContentDetails about the course are available on the web page (cf. link).
Lecture notesExperiment instructions can be found on the Atmospheric physics lab work web page.
Prerequisites / NoticeThree out of four available experiments must be carried out. The experiments are conducted in groups of 2 (or 3).
There will be three introduction lectures of 2 hours each in the beginning of the semester to familiarise students with the topics covered and report writing process.
701-1266-00LWeather Discussion Restricted registration - show details
Limited number of participants.
Preference will be given to students on the masters level in Atmospheric and Climate Science and Environmental Sciences and doctoral students in Environmental Sciences.

Prerequisites: Basic knowledge in meteorology is required for this class, students are advised to take courses 702-0473-00L and/or 701-1221-00L before attending this course.
W2.5 credits2PH. Wernli
AbstractThis three-parts course includes: (i) concise units to update the students knowledge about key aspects of mid-latitude weather systems and numerical weather prediction, (ii) a concrete application of this knowledge to predict and discuss the "weather of the week", and (iii) an in-depth case study analysis, performed in small groups, of a remarkable past weather event.
ObjectiveStudents will learn how to elaborate a weather prediction and to cope with uncertainties of weather (probabilistic) prediction models. They will also learn how to apply theoretical concepts from other lecture courses on atmospheric dynamics to perform a detailed case study of a specific weather event, using state-of-the-art observational and model-derived products and datasets.
Master's Thesis
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4275-00LMaster's Thesis Restricted registration - show details
The master thesis is supervised by a professor of the D-ERDW or of the Institute for Atmosphere and Climate (IAC, D-USYS), a professor who teaches in the module subjects or a senior scientist who is on the list of "competent leaders of master theses" of the D-ERDW or of the D-USYS (associated with the IAC).
Link
O30 credits64DLecturers
AbstractThe master programme will be completed by a master thesis on a topic selected from the subject range of the chosen major programme. Students are to prove their skills in working autonomously on a scientific project.
ObjectiveStudents are to prove their skills in working autonomously on a scientific project. They document their work in a scientific report.
Course Units for Additional Admission Requirements
The courses below are only available for MSc students with additional admission requirements.
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-0412-AALClimate Systems
Enrolment ONLY for MSc students with a decree declaring this course unit as an additional admission requirement.

Any other students (e.g. incoming exchange students, doctoral students) CANNOT enrol for this course unit.
E-3 credits6RR. Knutti
AbstractIntroduction of the most important components of the climate systems and their interactions.
ObjectiveStudents have a basic understanding of the global energy balance, radiation budget, boundary, layer, atmosphere, ocean, biosphere, land-surface coupling, cryosphere, carbon cycle, climate variability, climate of the past and anthropogenic climate change, and they are able to apply this to solve simple quantitative problems and answer qualitative questions.
701-0471-AALAtmospheric Chemistry Information
Enrolment ONLY for MSc students with a decree declaring this course unit as an additional admission requirement.

Any other students (e.g. incoming exchange students, doctoral students) CANNOT enrol for this course unit.
E-3 credits6RM. Ammann, T. Peter
AbstractThis course provides a general introduction into atmospheric chemistry targeted at master students who did not follow the bachelor course "atmospheric chemistry" or equivalent.
ObjectiveThe learning target of this course is a general overview on the most important processes of atmospheric chemistry and the various problems of the anthropogenic impact on the chemical composition of the atmosphere and air quality.
Content- Physical properties of the atmosphere: structure, large scale dynamics, UV radiation
- Thermodynamics and kinetics of gas phase reactions: enthalpy and free energy of reactions, rate laws, mechanisms of bimolecular and termolecular reactions.
- Photochemistry: Photolysis frequencies, O3 formation,...
- Aerosols and clouds: chemical properties, primary and secondary aerosol sources
- Multiphase chemistry: heterogeneous kinetics, solubility and hygroscopicity, N2O5 chemistry, SO2 oxidation, secondary organic aerosols
- Deposition: dry and wet deposition, acid rain,...
- Air quality: Environmental problems, legislation, sources, trends
- Stratospheric chemistry: Chapman cycle, Brewer-Dobson circulation, catalytic ozone destruction cycles, polar ozone hole, Montreal protocol
Global aspects: global budgets, air quality - climate interactions
701-0475-AALAtmospheric Physics
Enrolment ONLY for MSc students with a decree declaring this course unit as an additional admission requirement.

Any other students (e.g. incoming exchange students, doctoral students) CANNOT enrol for this course unit.
E-3 credits6RU. Lohmann
AbstractThis course covers the basics of atmospheric physics, which consist of: cloud and precipitation formation, thermodynamics, aerosol physics, radiation as well as the impact of aerosols and clouds on climate and artificial weather modification.
ObjectiveStudents are able
- to explain the mechanisms of cloud and precipitation formation using knowledge of humidity processes and thermodynamics.
- to evaluate the significance of clouds and aerosol particles for climate and artificial weather modification.
ContentMoist processes/thermodynamics; aerosol physics; cloud formation; precipitation processes, storms; importance of aerosols and clouds for climate and weather modification, clouds and precipitation
Lecture notesLohmann, U., Lüönd, F. and Mahrt, F., An Introduction to Clouds:
From the Microscale to Climate, Cambridge Univ. Press, 391 pp., 2016.
LiteratureLohmann, U., Lüönd, F. and Mahrt, F., An Introduction to Clouds:
From the Microscale to Climate, Cambridge Univ. Press, 391 pp., 2016.
701-0473-AALWeather Systems
Enrolment ONLY for MSc students with a decree declaring this course unit as an additional admission requirement.

Any other students (e.g. incoming exchange students, doctoral students) CANNOT enrol for this course unit.
E-3 credits6RM. A. Sprenger, F. Scholder-Aemisegger
AbstractSatellite observations; analysis of vertical soundings; geostrophic and thermal wind; cyclones at mid-latitude; global circulation; north-atlantic oscillation; atmospheric blocking situtations; Eulerian and Lagrangian perspective; potential vorticity; Alpine dynamics (storms, orographic wind); planetary boundary layer
ObjectiveIntroduction to basic aspects of atmospheric dynamics. Focus is given to the global-scale atmospheric circulation, synoptic-scale processes (in particular low-pressure systems), and the influence of mountains on the atmospheric flow.
ContentSatellite observations; analysis of vertical soundings; geostrophic and thermal wind; cyclones at mid-latitude; global circulation; north-atlantic oscillation; atmospheric blocking situtations; Eulerian and Lagrangian perspective; potential vorticity; Alpine dynamics (storms, orographic wind); planetary boundary layer
LiteratureAtmospheric Science, An Introductory Survey
John M. Wallace and Peter V. Hobbs, Academic Press
701-0461-AALNumerical Methods in Environmental Sciences Information
Enrolment ONLY for MSc students with a decree declaring this course unit as an additional admission requirement.

Any other students (e.g. incoming exchange students, doctoral students) CANNOT enrol for this course unit.
E-3 credits6RC. Schär, O. Fuhrer
AbstractThis lecture imparts the mathematical basis necessary for the development and application of
numerical models in the field of Environmental Science. The lecture material includes an introduction into numerical techniques for solving ordinary and partial differential equations, as well as exercises aimed at the realization of simple models.
ObjectiveThis lecture imparts the mathematical basis necessary for the development and application of
numerical models in the field of Environmental Science. The lecture material includes an introduction into numerical techniques for solving ordinary and partial differential equations, as well as exercises aimed at the realization of simple models.
ContentClassification of numerical problems, introduction to finite-difference methods, time integration schemes, non-linearity, conservative numerical techniques, an overview of spectral and finite-element methods. Examples and exercises from a diverse cross-section of Environmental Science.

Three obligatory exercises, each two hours in length, are integrated into the lecture. The implementation language is Matlab (previous experience not necessary: a Matlab introduction is given). Example programs and graphics tools are supplied.
LiteratureList of literature is provided.
701-0071-AALMathematics III: Systems Analysis
Enrolment ONLY for MSc students with a decree declaring this course unit as an additional admission requirement.

Any other students (e.g. incoming exchange students, doctoral students) CANNOT enrol for this course unit.
E-4 credits9RN. Gruber
AbstractThe objective of the systems analysis course is to deepen and illustrate the mathematical concepts on the basis of a series of very concrete examples. Topics covered include: linear box models with one or several variables, non-linear box models with one or several variables, time-discrete models, and continuous models in time and space.
ObjectiveLearning and applying of concepts (models) and quantitative methods to address concrete problems of environmental relevance. Understanding and applying the systems-analytic approach, i.e., Recognizing the core of the problem - simplification - quantitative approach - prediction.
ContentLink
Lecture notesOverhead slides will be made available through Ilias.
LiteratureImboden, D.S. and S. Pfenninger (2013) Introduction to Systems Analysis: Mathematically Modeling Natural Systems. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

Link
701-0106-AALMathematics V: Applied Deepening of Mathematics I - III
Enrolment ONLY for MSc students with a decree declaring this course unit as an additional admission requirement.

Any other students (e.g. incoming exchange students, doctoral students) CANNOT enrol for this course unit.
E-3 credits6RM. A. Sprenger
AbstractSelected mathematical topics are presented for later use in more specialised lectures. Part of the topics were already discussed in the lectures Mathematics I-III. Here, they should be shortly recapitulated and most importantly applied to practical problems. If necessary, new mathematical concepts and methods will be introduced in order to solve challenging and inspiring problems from practice.
ObjectiveThe aim of this lecture is to prepare the students for the more specialised lectures. They should become more familiar with the mathematical background, the mathematical concepts und most of all with their application and interpretation.
ContentPractical examples from the following areas will be discussed: ordinary differential equations; eigenvalue problems from linear algebra; systems of linear and nonlinear differential equations; partial differential equations (diffusion, transport, waves).