Suchergebnis: Katalogdaten im Frühjahrssemester 2021

Erdwissenschaften Master Information
Vertiefung in Mineralogy and Geochemistry
Wahlpflichtmodule Mineralogy und Geochemistry
Innerhalb der Majors Mineralogy and Geochemistry sind mindestens zwei Wahlpflichtmodule zu absolvieren.
Geochemistry: Wahlpflichtfächer
651-4228-00LTopics in Planetary SciencesW3 KP2GH. Busemann, A. Rozel, M. Schönbächler, P. Tackley
KurzbeschreibungThe course is based on reading and understanding research papers. Topics vary and cover e.g. planetary geophysics, geochemistry and dynamics including new results from space missions or models of the dynamical evolution of planetary bodies as well as planet and solar system formation.
Each selected research paper is presented by a student, who then also leads an open discussion on the topic.
LernzielThe goal of the course is to discuss topics in planetary sciences in-depth, which were not covered in the general planetary science courses. The course particularly aims at training the student's ability to critically evaluate research papers, to summarize the findings concisely in an oral presentation, to discuss the science in a group and give constructive feedback on presentations.
The course should enable the students to better understand the presented research, even if not in their fields of expertise and to convey scientific results to students with a distinct study direction (geology, geochemistry or geophysics).
InhaltTopics, relevant papers selected typically from the recent literature by the lecturers, will vary. Suggestions from students are welcome, but have to be discussed with a lecturer before the topics are listed and distributed. Special introductions are given to discuss good presentation practise.

Topics could include, e.g.:
- Formation of the solar system and the terrestrial planets
- Evolution of terrestrial bodies (Mercury, Venus, Moon, Mars, Vesta and the other asteroids)
- Active asteroids/main-belt comets, icy moons (Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus), comets and the outer solar system
- Geophysical, geomorphologic and geochemical exploration of planetary bodies (e.g., remote sensing, meteorite studies, seismology, modelling)
- exoplanets and transiting bodies from outside the solar system
Voraussetzungen / BesonderesThe students are expected to have passed either course 651-4010-00L Planetary Physics and Chemistry or course 651-4227-00L Planetary Geochemistry.
651-4004-00LThe Global Carbon Cycle - ReducedW3 KP2GT. I. Eglinton, L. Bröder, R. G. Hilton
KurzbeschreibungThe carbon cycle connects different reservoirs of C, including life on Earth, atmospheric CO2, and economically important geological reserves of C. Much of this C is in reduced (organic) form, and is composed of complex chemical structures that reflect diverse biological activity, processes and transformations.
LernzielA wealth of information is held within the complex organic molecules, both in the context of the contemporary carbon cycle and its links to is other biogeochemical cycles, as well as in relation to Earth's history, the evolution of life and climate on this planet.

In this course we will learn about the role of reduced forms of carbon in the global cycle, how these forms of carbon are produced, move around the planet, and become sequestered in the geological record, and how they can be used to infer biological activity and conditions on this planet in the geologic past. The course encompasses a range of spatial and temporal scales, from molecular to global, and from the contemporary environment to earliest life.
Voraussetzungen / BesonderesThis course is good preparation for the combined Field-Lab Course: "651-4044-02 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Field Course" and "651-4044-01 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Lab Practical"
651-4044-04LMicropalaeontology and Molecular PalaeontologyW3 KP2GH. Stoll, C. De Jonge, T. I. Eglinton, I. Hernández Almeida
KurzbeschreibungThe course aims to provide an introduction to the key micropaleontological and molecular fossils from marine and terrestrial niches, and the use of these fossils for reconstructing environmental and evolutionary changes.
LernzielThe course aims to provide an introduction to the key micropaleontological and molecular fossils from marine and terrestrial niches, and the use of these fossils for reconstructing environmental and evolutionary changes.

The course will include laboratory exercises with microscopy training: identification of plantonic foraminifera and the application of transfer functions, identification of calcareous nannoliths and estimation of water column structure and productivity with n-ratio, identification of major calcareous nannofossils for Mesozoic-cenozoic biostratigraphy, Quaternary radiolarian assemblages and estimation of diversity indices.
The course will include laboratory exercises on molecular markers include study of chlorin extracts, alkenone and TEX86 distributions and temperature reconstruction, and terrestrial leaf wax characterization, using GC-FID, LC-MS, and spectrophotometry.
InhaltMicropaleontology and Molecular paleontology
1. Introduction to the domains of life and molecular and mineral fossils. Genomic classifications of domains of life. Biosynthesis and molecular fossils and preservation/degradation. Biomineralization and mineral fossils and preservation/dissolution. Review of stable isotopes in biosynthesis.
2. The planktic niche – primary producers. Resources and challenges of primary production in the marine photic zone – light supply, nutrient supply, water column structure and niche partitioning. Ecological strategies and specialization, bloom succession, diversity and size gradients in the modern ocean. Introduction to principal mineralizing phytoplankton – diatoms, coccolithophores, dynoflagellates, as well as cyanobacteria. Molecular markers including alkenones, long-chain diols and sterols, IP25, pigments, diatom UV-absorbing compounds. Application of fossils and markers as environmental proxies. Long term evolutionary evidence for originations, radiations, and extinctions in microfossils and biomarkers; evolution of size trends in phytoplankton over Cenozoic, geochemical evidence for evolution of carbon concentrating mechanisms. Introduction to nannofossil biostratigraphy.
3. The planktic niche – heterotrophy from bacteria to zooplankton. Resources and challenges of planktic heterotrophy – food supply, oxygen availability, seasonal cycles, seasonal and vertical niche partitioning. Introduction to principal mineralizing zooplankton planktic foraminifera and radiolaria: ecological strategies and specialization, succession, diversity and size gradients in the modern ocean. Morphometry and adaptations for symbiont hosting. Molecular records such as isorenieratene and Crenoarcheota GDGT; the debate of TEX86 temperature production. Long term evolutionary evidence for originations, radiations, and extinctions in microfossils; evolution of size and form, basic biostratigraphy. Molecular evidence of evolution including diversification of sterol/sterine assemblages.
4. The benthic niche – continental margins. Resources and challenges of benthic heterotrophy – food supply, oxygen, turbulence and substrate. Principal mineralizing benthic organisms – benthic foraminifera and ostracods. Benthic habitat gradients (infaunal and epifaunal; shallow to deep margin. Microbial redox ladder in sediments. Molecular markers of methanogenesis and methanotrophy, Anamox markers, pristine/phytane redox indicator. Applications of benthic communities for sea level reconstructions. Major originations and extinctions.
5. The benthic niche in the abyssal ocean. Resources and challenges of deep benthic heterotrophy. Benthic foraminifera, major extinctions and turnover events. Relationship to deep oxygen level and productivity.
6. Terrestrial dry niches -soils and trees. Resources and challenges - impacts of temperature, humidity, CO2 and soil moisture on terrestrial vegetation and microbial reaction and turnover. Introduction to pollen and molecular markers for soil pH, humidity, leaf wax C3-C4 community composition and hydrology. Long term evolution of C4 pathway, markers for angiosperm and gymnosperm evolution.
7. Terrestrial aquatic environments – resources and challenges. Lake systems, seasonal mixing regimes, eutrophication, closed/open systems. Introduction to lacustrine diatoms, chironomids, testate amoeba. Molecular markers in lake/box environments including paleogenomics of communities.
SkriptA lab and lecture manual will be distributed at the start of the course and additional material will be available in the course Moodle
LiteraturKey references from primary literature will be provided as pdf on the course moodle.
Voraussetzungen / BesonderesTiming: The course starts on February 19 and ends on May 28. Prerequisites: Recall and remember what you learned in introductory chemistry and biology
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