# Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2021

Earth Sciences Master | ||||||

Major in Geophysics | ||||||

Compulsory Modules Geophysics | ||||||

Geophysics: Methods I | ||||||

Number | Title | Type | ECTS | Hours | Lecturers | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

651-4096-00L | Inverse Theory I: Basics | O | 3 credits | 2V | A. Fichtner | |

Abstract | Inverse theory is the art of inferring properties of a physical system from noisy and sparse observations. It is used to transform observations of waves into 3D images of a medium seismic tomography, medical imaging and material science; to constrain density in the Earth from gravity; to obtain probabilities of life on exoplanets ... . Inverse theory is at the heart of many natural sciences. | |||||

Objective | The goal of this course is to enable students to develop a mathematical formulation of specific inference (inverse) problems that may arise anywhere in the physical sciences, and to implement suitable solution methods. Furthermore, students should become aware that nearly all relevant inverse problems are ill-posed, and that their meaningful solution requires the addition of prior knowledge in the form of expertise and physical intuition. This is what makes inverse theory an art. | |||||

Content | This first of two courses covers the basics needed to address (and hopefully solve) any kind of inverse problem. Starting from the description of information in terms of probabilities, we will derive Bayes' Theorem, which forms the mathematical foundation of modern scientific inference. This will allow us to formalise the process of gaining information about a physical system using new observations. Following the conceptual part of the course, we will focus on practical solutions of inverse problems, which will lead us to study Monte Carlo methods and the special case of least-squares inversion. In more detail, we aim to cover the following main topics: 1. The nature of observations and physical model parameters 2. Representing information by probabilities 3. Bayes' theorem and mathematical scientific inference 4. Random walks and Monte Carlo Methods 5. The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm 6. Simulated Annealing 7. Linear inverse problems and the least-squares method 8. Resolution and the nullspace 9. Basic concepts of iterative nonlinear inversion methods While the concepts introduced in this course are universal, they will be illustrated with numerous simple and intuitive examples. These will be complemented with a collection of computer and programming exercises. Prerequisites for this course include (i) basic knowledge of analysis and linear algebra, (ii) basic programming skills, for instance in Matlab or Python, and (iii) scientific curiosity. | |||||

Lecture notes | Presentation slides and detailed lecture notes will be provided. | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | This course is offered as a half-semester course during the first part of the semester | |||||

Geophysical Methods II | ||||||

Number | Title | Type | ECTS | Hours | Lecturers | |

651-4013-00L | Potential Field Theory | O | 3 credits | 2G | A. Khan | |

Abstract | The course will guide students in learning about the capabilities and limitations of potential field data, namely gravity and magnetic measurements as collected by industry, in determining geological sources. It will follow a mathematical approach, and students will learn to apply mathematical strategies to generate quantitative answers to geophysical questions. | |||||

Objective | The course will guide students in learning about the capabilities and limitations of potential field data, namely gravity and magnetic measurements as collected by industry, in determining geological sources. It will follow a mathematical approach, and students will learn to apply mathematical strategies to generate quantitative answers to geophysical questions. | |||||

Content | Part I: Concept of work & energy, conservative fields, the Newtonian potential, Laplace's and Poisson's equation, solutions in Cartesian/spherical geometry, the Geoid, gravity instrumentation, field data processing, depth rules for isolated bodies, Fourier methods. Part II: Magnetic potential, dipole and current loops, distributed magnetization, remanent and induced magnetization, nonuniqueness & ``annihilators'', field data processing, magnetic instrumentation, anomalies from total field data, reduction to the pole, statistical methods. Part III: Applicability to DC electrical methods: resistivity sounding. | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | Prerequisite: Successful completion of 651-4130-00 Mathematical Methods | |||||

Restricted Choice Modules Geophysics | ||||||

Seismology | ||||||

Number | Title | Type | ECTS | Hours | Lecturers | |

651-4006-00L | Seismology of the Spherical Earth | O | 3 credits | 3G | M. van Driel, S. C. Stähler | |

Abstract | Brief review of continuum mechanics and the seismic wave equation; P and S waves; reciprocity and representation theorems; eikonal equation and ray tracing; Huygens and Fresnel; surface-waves; normal-modes; seismic interferometry and noise; numerical solutions. | |||||

Objective | After taking this course, students will have the background knowledge necessary to start an original research project in quantitative seismology. | |||||

Literature | Shearer, P., Introduction to Seismology, Cambridge University Press, 1999. Aki, K. and P. G. Richards, Quantitative Seismology, second edition, University Science Books, Sausalito, 2002. Nolet, G., A Breviary of Seismic Tomography, Cambridge University Press, 2008. | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | This is a quantitative lecture with an emphasis on mathematical description of wave propagation phenomena on the global scale, hence basic knowledge in vector calculus, linear algebra and analysis as well as seismology (e.g. from the 'wave propagation' lecture) are essential to follow this course. | |||||

Physics of the Earth's Interior | ||||||

Number | Title | Type | ECTS | Hours | Lecturers | |

651-4017-00L | Earth's Core and the Geodynamo | O | 3 credits | 2G | P. D. Marti, C. Hardy | |

Abstract | In Earth's core, motions of liquid iron act as a dynamo producing the geomagnetic field. This course explores the composition, structure and physical conditions in Earth's core and describes the geomagnetic field before focusing on the geodynamo mechanism. An interdisciplinary perspective is adopted involving electromagnetism and fluid dynamics but also seismology and mineral physics. | |||||

Objective | The objectives of this course are: (i) Development of the geophysical and sometimes mathematical tools needed to understand Earth's core and the geodynamo. (ii) Acquisition of knowledge concerning physical and observational constraints on the dynamics of Earth's core and the evolution of the geomagnetic field. | |||||

Content | (i) Structure and composition of Earth's core: Including PREM, Adams-Williamson equation, Inner core anisotropy, Geochemical constraints, High Pressure mineral physics Experiments, Phase changes, Adiabatic temperature profiles, Geotherms, Power sources for the Geodynamo. (ii) Observational geomagnetism: Spherical harmonics, Global field models, Westward drift, Jerks, Core field inverse problem, Core field structure and historical evolution, Polarity excursions and reversals, Time-averaged field. (iii) Theory of the Geodynamo: Review of Maxwell's equations, Induction equation, Alpha Effect and Omega Effect, Proudman-Taylor theorem Geostrophy, Rotating Convection, Experimental and numerical dynamos. | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | The Earth's Core and Geodynamo Course capitalizes on the knowledge of: - 651-4001-00L: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics - 651-4130-00L: Mathematical Methods Therefore we recommend that the students have attended those courses or others of similar content. | |||||

651-4008-00L | Dynamics of the Mantle and Lithosphere | O | 3 credits | 2G | A. Rozel | |

Abstract | The goal of this course is to obtain a detailed understanding of the physical properties, structure, and dynamical behavior of the mantle-lithosphere system, focusing mainly on Earth but also discussing how these processes occur differently in other terrestrial planets. | |||||

Objective | The goal of this course is to obtain a detailed understanding of the physical properties, structure, and dynamical behavior of the mantle-lithosphere system, focusing mainly on Earth but also discussing how these processes occur differently in other terrestrial planets. | |||||

651-5104-00L | Deep Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth and Planetary InteriorsThe attendance of Mathematical Methods (651-4130-00L, Autumn Semester) is advisable. | O | 3 credits | 2G | A. Kuvshinov, A. Grayver, F. Samrock | |

Abstract | The course guides students in learning about phenomenon of the electromagnetic induction in the Earth and other terrestrial planets. The course focuses on studying fundamentals of electromagnetism as well as on analysis and interpretation of long-period time-varying EM fields observed on the ground and in space, which are used to image electrical conductivity in the Earth and planetary interiors. | |||||

Objective | The objectives of this course are: (i) Development of the geophysical and mathematical tools needed to understand electromagnetic induction through the analysis of the Maxwell's equations. (ii) Introduction to the physical nature of magnetospheric, ionospheric and ocean induced electromagnetic signals. (iii) Basics of the data interpretation and applications in the fields of deep mantle physics, geothermal exploration and space weather hazards. | |||||

Content | Tentative content of the lectures: (i) Introduction to electromagnetic induction: governing equations, summary of the main EM sounding methods (ii) Electrical conductivity of rocks and minerals: conduction mechanisms, anisotropy (iii) Basics of geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS) method: solution of Maxwell’s equations in spherical geometry, GDS transfer functions (iv) Basics of magnetotelluric (MT) method: solution of Maxwell’s equations in Cartesian geometry, MT transfer functions (v) Motional induction: tidal magnetic signals, satellite observations (vi) Data acquisition and processing (vii) Numerical solution of Maxwell's equations in models with 3-D conductivity distribution (viii) Geomagnetic depth sounding of terrestrial planets (ix) Other applications: geothermal exploration, mantle conductivity studies, space weather modeling | |||||

Applied Geophysics | ||||||

Applied Geophysics: Compulsory Courses | ||||||

Number | Title | Type | ECTS | Hours | Lecturers | |

651-4079-00L | Reflection Seismology Processing | O | 5 credits | 6V + 6U | D.‑J. van Manen | |

Abstract | Seismic data processing from field data to interpretation. | |||||

Objective | Application of theoretical knowledge acquired in previous courses to the processing of a seismic data set and an extensive introduction to commercial processing software. | |||||

Content | Keywords: data conversion, amplitude reconstruction, filtering (in time and space), geometry assignment, static corrections, velocity analyses, normal-moveout (NMO) corrections, deconvolution, stacking, migration, interpretation. | |||||

Literature | Access to commercial processing software manuals and Yilmaz’s (2001) textbook “Seismic Data Analysis” | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | Students usually work in teams of 2. | |||||

651-4240-00L | Geofluids | O | 6 credits | 4G | X.‑Z. Kong, T. Driesner, S. Kyas, A. Moreira Mulin Leal | |

Abstract | This course presents advanced topics of single/multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, reactive transport, and geochemical reactions in the subsurface. Emphasis is on the understanding of the underlying governing equations of each physical and chemical process, and their relevance to applications, e.g., groundwater management, geothermal energy, CO2 storage, waste disposal, and oil/gas production. | |||||

Objective | This course presents the tools for understanding and modeling basic physical and chemical processes in the subsurface. In particular, it will focus on fluid flow, reactive transport, heat transfer, and fluid-rock interactions in a porous and/or fractured medium. The students will learn the underlying governing equations, followed by a demonstration of corresponding analytical or/and numerical solutions. By the end of the course, the student should be able to: 1. Understand, formulate, and derive the governing equations of fluid flow, heat transfer, and solute transport; 2. Understand and apply the underlying physical and chemical processes to simplify and model practical subsurface problems; 3. Solve simple flow problems affected by fluid density (induced by the solute concentration or temperature); 4. Understand and be able to assess the uncertainties pertaining to the reactive transport processes; 5. Assess simple coupled reactive transport problems. | |||||

Content | 1) Introduction to the fundamental concepts of fluid flow in the subsurface 2) Immiscible fluid flow in porous/fractured media 3) Solute transport and heat transfer in subsurface 4) Density-driven flow 5) Uncertainty estimation 6) Reactive transport 7) Fluid injection and production 8) Fluid-rock interactions (non-mechanical) (8a) mineral and gas solubility in brines (8b) mineral dissolution/precipitation affecting rock porosity and permeability | |||||

Literature | R. Allan Freeze and John A. Cherry. Groundwater. 1979. Steven E. Ingebritsen, Ward E. Sanford, and Christopher E. Neuzil. Groundwater in geologic processes. 2008. Vedat Batu. Applied flow and solute transport modelling in aquifers. 2006. Luigi Marini. Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide : thermodynamics, kinetics, and reaction path modeling. 2006. Jacob Bear. Dynamics of fluids in porous media. 1988. | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | Prerequisites: successful completion of 651-4023-00 Groundwater, 102-0455-00 Groundwater I or 651-4001-00 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics | |||||

Applied Geophysics: Courses of Choice | ||||||

Number | Title | Type | ECTS | Hours | Lecturers | |

651-4087-00L | Case Studies in Exploration and Environmental Geophysics | W+ | 3 credits | 3G | H. Maurer, J. Robertsson, M. Hertrich, M. O. Saar, T. Spillmann | |

Abstract | This course focuses on benefits and limitations of geophysical methods applied to problems of high societal relevance. It is demonstrated, how seismics, ground-penetrating-radar and other electromagnetic methods can be employed in geothermics, the cryosphere, hydrocarbon exploration, natural hazard assessments and radioactive waste disposal problems. | |||||

Objective | This course is set up for both, geophysicists and non-geophysicists. The former will become familiar with applications of geophysical methods, for which they have learned the underlying theory in other courses. Non-geophysicists (i.e., potential users of geophysical technics, such as geologists and geotechnical engineers) will learn, which geophysical method or which combination of geophysical methods can be used to solve a particular in their realm. The main learning goal for both groups is to understand the benefits and limitations of geophysical techniques for important applications, such as exploration problems, waste disposal, or natural hazards. | |||||

Content | During the first part of the course, various themes will be introduced, in which geophysical methods play a key role. Module 1 (25.2./4.3): Geothermal Energy (M. Saar) Module 2 (11.3.): Natural Hazards (H.R. Maurer) Module 3 (18.3.): Cryosphere Applications (H.R. Maurer) Module 4 (25.3./1.4.): Radioactive Waste Disposal (T. Spillmann) Module 5 (15.4.): Marine Seismics (J. Robertsson) Module 6 (22.4.): Hydrocarbon Exploration (Fons ten Kroode) During the second part of the course, we will focus on Deep Underground Laboratories. They offer exciting opportunities for research associated with many themes covered in Modules 1 to 6. This block starts with an introductory lecture (29.4.), followed by visits of the three main Deep Underground Laboratories in Switzerland: 6.5: Bedretto Laboratory 20.5 .: Mont Terri Laboratory 27.5.: Grimsel Test Site The laboratory visits will occupy the full afternoons of the respective days. Of course, the visits will only be possible, when the COVID-19 situation will be appropriate. Otherwise, virtual laboratory tours are planned. For earning the credit points, at least two out of the three laboratory visits are mandatory, but the students are encouraged, to join all visits. Active participation of the students will be required. Prior to the laboratory visits, the students must familiarize themselves with one experiment (in total, not per laboratory), and they will introduce this experiment during the visit to their fellow students. Finally, a short report on the experiment assigned will have to be written. Presentation and report will contribute 50% to the final grade. The remaining 50% of the final grade will be earned during a project work on June 3. The students will receive a small project out of the themes of Modules 1 to 6. During a few hours, they will work independently on the project, and they have to summarize their results in a short report. | |||||

Lecture notes | Course material will be provided in the teaching repository associated with this course. | |||||

Literature | Provided during the course | |||||

Prerequisites / Notice | Basic knowledge of geophysical methods is required. Students registering for the course confirm having read and accepted the terms and conditions for excursions and field courses of D-ERDW Link | |||||

» additional elective course of at least 3KP with prior approval by subject advisor |

- Page 1 of 1