402-0674-00L  Physics in Medical Research: From Atoms to Cells

SemesterAutumn Semester 2022
LecturersB. K. R. Müller
Periodicityyearly recurring course
Language of instructionEnglish



Courses

NumberTitleHoursLecturers
402-0674-00 VPhysics in Medical Research: From Atoms to Cells2 hrs
Fri13:45-15:30HCI H 8.1 »
B. K. R. Müller
402-0674-00 UPhysics in Medical Research: From Atoms to Cells1 hrs
Fri15:45-16:30HCI H 8.1 »
B. K. R. Müller

Catalogue data

AbstractScanning probe and diffraction techniques allow studying activated atomic processes during early stages of epitaxial growth. For quantitative description, rate equation analysis, mean-field nucleation and scaling theories are applied on systems ranging from simple metallic to complex organic materials. The knowledge is expanded to optical and electronic properties as well as to proteins and cells.
ObjectiveThe lecture series is motivated by an overview covering the skin of the crystals, roughness analysis, contact angle measurements, protein absorption/activity and monocyte behaviour.

As the first step, real structures on clean surfaces including surface reconstructions and surface relaxations, defects in crystals are presented, before the preparation of clean metallic, semiconducting, oxidic and organic surfaces are introduced.

The atomic processes on surfaces are activated by the increase of the substrate temperature. They can be studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The combination with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) allows determining the sizes of the critical nuclei and the other activated processes in a hierarchical fashion. The evolution of the surface morphology is characterized by the density and size distribution of the nanostructures that could be quantified by means of the rate equation analysis, the mean-field nucleation theory, as well as the scaling theory. The surface morphology is further characterized by defects and nanostructure's shapes, which are based on the strain relieving mechanisms and kinetic growth processes.

High-resolution electron diffraction is complementary to scanning probe techniques and provides exact mean values. Some phenomena are quantitatively described by the kinematic theory and perfectly understood by means of the Ewald construction. Other phenomena need to be described by the more complex dynamical theory. Electron diffraction is not only associated with elastic scattering but also inelastic excitation mechanisms that reflect the electronic structure of the surfaces studied. Low-energy electrons lead to phonon and high-energy electrons to plasmon excitations. Both effects are perfectly described by dipole and impact scattering.

Thin-films of rather complex organic materials are often quantitatively characterized by photons with a broad range of wavelengths from ultra-violet to infra-red light. Asymmetries and preferential orientations of the (anisotropic) molecules are verified using the optical dichroism and second harmonic generation measurements. Recently, ellipsometry has been introduced to on-line monitor film thickness, and roughness with sub-nanometer precision. These characterisation techniques are vital for optimising the preparation of medical implants.

Cell-surface interactions are related to the cell adhesion and the contractile cellular forces. Physical means have been developed to quantify these interactions. Other physical techniques are introduced in cell biology, namely to count and sort cells, to study cell proliferation and metabolism and to determine the relation between cell morphology and function.

X rays are more and more often used to characterise the human tissues down to the nanometer level. The combination of highly intense beams only some micrometers in diameter with scanning enables spatially resolved measurements and the determination of tissue's anisotropies of biopsies.

Performance assessment

Performance assessment information (valid until the course unit is held again)
Performance assessment as a semester course
ECTS credits6 credits
ExaminersB. K. R. Müller
Typesession examination
Language of examinationEnglish
RepetitionThe performance assessment is offered every session. Repetition possible without re-enrolling for the course unit.
Mode of examinationoral 30 minutes
This information can be updated until the beginning of the semester; information on the examination timetable is binding.

Learning materials

 
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