Tomaso Zambelli: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2022 
Name  Prof. Dr. Tomaso Zambelli 
Address  Inst. f. Biomedizinische Technik ETH Zürich, GLC F 12.2 Gloriastrasse 37/ 39 8092 Zürich SWITZERLAND 
Telephone  +41 44 632 45 75 
zambelli@biomed.ee.ethz.ch  
Department  Information Technology and Electrical Engineering 
Relationship  Adjunct Professor 
Number  Title  ECTS  Hours  Lecturers  

227008513L  Projects & Seminars: Assembling and Controlling a TuningFork AFM Only for Electrical Engineering and Information Technology BSc. The course unit can only be taken once. Repeated enrollment in a later semester is not creditable.  3.5 credits  3.5P  T. Zambelli  
Abstract  The category of "Laboratory Courses, Projects, Seminars" includes courses and laboratories in various formats designed to impart practical knowledge and skills. Moreover, these classes encourage independent experimentation and design, allow for explorative learning and teach the methodology of project work.  
Learning objective  Invented in the 1980s in Zurich and awarded with the Kavli prize in 2016, the atomic force microscope (AFM) has enabled us to visualize surfaces at the single atom level, and to measure single molecule and cellcell interactions, deepening our understanding of material science and biology. This is achieved by controlling micromechanical piezo actuators with nanometer precision and processing noisy signals in order to achieve meaningful data. In order to introduce you to the capabilities of modern AFMs in biomedical sensing, you will build your own setups in groups of two. You will be introduced to an AFM’s functionality, control, and signal readout using LabView. A signal of an oscillating tuningfork will be used as feedback for the selfbuilt AFM. In order to better understand the working principle of a tuning fork, you will also build your own frequency sweeper and analyze it with selfbuilt lowpass filters. After you have implemented your own setup, you will have the chance to characterize different biomedical samples on stateoftheart setups. This data will then be analyzed using Python. The focus of this P&S seminar is to enable you to transfer your theoretical knowledge into practice and at the same time get to know how electrical engineering can be used in biomedical research. The course requires active participation during the practical sessions, a 1015 min presentation and a short written report on the acquired results. The course will be given in English. Dates: Mon 4.10., Wed 6.10., Mon 11.10., Wed 13.10., Mon 25.10., Wed 27.10., Mon 1.11., Wed 3.11.  
Competencies 
 
227031100L  Qubits, Electrons, Photons  6 credits  3V + 2U  T. Zambelli  
Abstract  Indepth analysis of the quantum mechanics origin of nuclear magnetic resonance (qubits, twolevel systems), of LASER (quantization of the electromagnetic field, photons), and of electron transfer (from electrochemistry to photosynthesis).  
Learning objective  Beside electronics nanodevices, DITET is pushing its research in the fields of NMR (MRI), electrochemistry, bioelectronics, nanooptics, and quantum information, which are all rationalized in terms of quantum mechanics. Starting from the axioms of quantum mechanics, we will derive the fascinating theory describing spin and qubits, electron transitions and transfer, photons and LASER: quantum mechanics is different because it mocks our daily Euclidean intuition! In this way, students will work out a robust quantum mechanics (theoretical!!!) basis which will help them in their advanced studies of the following masters: EEIT (batteries), Biomedical Engineering (NMR, bioelectronics), Quantum Engineering, Micro and Nanosystems. IMPORTANT: "qubits" from the point of view of NMR (and NOT from that of quantum computing!).  
Content  • Lagrangian and Hamiltonian: Symmetries and Poisson Brackets • Postulates of QM: Hilbert Spaces and Operators • Heisenberg’s Matrix Mechanics: Hamiltonian and Time Evolution Operator • Density Operator • Spin: Qubits, Bloch Equations, and NMR • Entanglement • Symmetries and Corresponding Operators • Schrödinger's Wave Mechanics: Electrons in a Periodic Potential and Energy Bands • Harmonic Oscillator: Creation and Annihilation Operators • Identical Particles: Bosons and Fermions • Quantization of the Electromagnetic Field: Photons, Absorption and Emission, LASER • Electron Transfer: Marcus Theory via BornOppenheimer, FranckCondon, LandauZener  
Lecture notes  No lecture notes because the proposed textbooks together with the provided supplementary material are more than exhaustive! !!!!! I am using OneNote. All lectures and exercises will be broadcast via ZOOM and correspondingly recorded (link in Moodle) !!!!!  
Literature  • J.S. Townsend, "A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics", Second Edition, 2012, University Science Books • M. Le Bellac, "Quantum Physics", 2011, Cambridge University Press • (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian) L. Susskind, G. Hrabovsky, "Theoretical Minimum: What You Need to Know to Start Doing Physics", 2014, Hachette Book Group USA Supplementary material will be uploaded in Moodle. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + (as rigorous and profound presentation of the mathematical framework) G. Dell'Antonio, "Lectures on the Mathematics of Quantum Mechanics I", 2015, Springer + (as account of those formidable years) G. Gamow, "Thirty Years that Shook Physics", 1985, Dover Publications Inc.  
Prerequisites / Notice  The course has been intentionally conceived to be selfconsistent with respect to QM for those master students not having encountered it in their track yet. Therefore, a presumably large overlapping has to be expected with a (welcome!) QM introduction course like the DITET "Physics II". A solid base of Analysis I & II as well as of Linear Algebra is really helpful.  
Competencies 
 
227065200L  Maxwell, Einstein, and the GPS  6 credits  2V + 2U  T. Zambelli  
Abstract  Maxwell’s equations are reinterpreted in the framework of Einstein's special relativity theory using the Lagrangian formalism in order to discover the deep interconnection between the electric and magnetic field. Its daily relevance is emphasized by pinpointing how GPS atomic clocks in satellites and on the earth are affected by frequency shifts which can be explained only in terms of relativity.  
Learning objective  DITET is the depository of the Maxwell’s equations, which are dissected from all perspectives in the courses Physics I, Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, and Advanced Electromagnetic Waves. Only one aspect is left over: the fact that they are not invariant with respect to the classical Galilean transformation… On the contrary, Maxwell’s equations predict that the light speed is the same for every inertial frame of reference. In this course, we will deepen how Einstein solved this clash elaborating the theory of “special relativity”. Maxwell's equations are thus naturally derived in a breathtaking fashion from the principle of stationary action within the Lagrangian formalism. Not only its elegance, but also the daily importance of the relativity theory will be finally highlighted explaining how the GPS can work only if the relativistic view of synchronous clocks is taken into account.  
Content  • GalileoNewton, the Ether, MichelsonMorley's Experiment • Lorentz Transformations • 4Vectors in Minkowski’s Spacetime: Tensor Calculus • The Lagrangian, the Principle of Stationary Action for Particles and Fields, Noether's Theorem • Maxwell’s Equations and the EnergyMomentum Tensor • Waves • Radiation from Accelerated Charged Particles • Very First Notions of General Relativity: Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Time Dilation • Sagnac's Effect • GPS  
Lecture notes  No lecture notes because the proposed textbooks together with the provided supplementary material are more than exhaustive! !!!!! I am using OneNote. All lectures and exercises will be broadcast via ZOOM and correspondingly recorded (link in Moodle) !!!!!  
Literature  • (Special Relativity) L. Susskind and A. Friedman, "Special Relativity and Classical Field Theory: The Theoretical Minimum", 2019, Hachette Book Group USA • (Lagrangian Formalism) L. Susskind and G. Hrabovsky, "Theoretical Minimum: What You Need to Know to Start Doing Physics", 2014, Hachette Book Group USA Supplementary material will be uploaded in Moodle. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + (the classical and probably unsurpassed treatise) L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, "The Classical Theory of Fields", 1980, ButterworthHeinemann + (on the GPS) E.D. Kaplan, C. Hegarty, "Understanding GPS/GNSS", 2017, ARTECH HOUSE USA + (as account of that annus mirabilis) J.S. Rigden, "Einstein 1905: The Standard of Greatness", 2006, Harvard University Press  
Prerequisites / Notice  Notions of a course on Electromagnetism like DITET "Electromagnetic Fields and Waves" are indispensable. Furthermore, a solid base of Analysis I & II as well as of Linear Algebra is really helpful. IMPORTANT: a few Wednesdays are lectures (NOT exercises!), details in Moodle!  
Competencies 
 
227093900L  Cell Biophysics  6 credits  4G  T. Zambelli  
Abstract  Applying two fundamental principles of thermodynamics (entropy maximization and Gibbs energy minimization), an analytical model is derived for a variety of biological phenomena at the molecular as well as cellular level, and critically compared with the corresponding experimental data in the literature.  
Learning objective  Engineering uses the laws of physics to predict the behavior of a system. Biological systems are so diverse and complex prompting the question whether we can apply unifying concepts of theoretical physics coping with the multiplicity of life’s mechanisms. Objective of this course is to show that biological phenomena despite their variety can be analytically described using only two principles from statistical mechanics: maximization of the entropy and minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Starting point of the course is the probability theory, which enables to derive stepbystep the two pillars of thermodynamics from the perspective of statistical mechanics: the maximization of entropy according to the Boltzmann’s law as well as the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Then, an assortment of biological phenomena at the molecular and cellular level (e.g. cytoskeletal polymerization, action potential, photosynthesis, gene regulation, morphogen patterning) will be examined at the light of these two principles with the aim to derive a quantitative expression describing their behavior. Each analytical model is finally validated by comparing it with the corresponding available experimental results. By the end of the course, students will also learn to critically evaluate the concepts of making an assumption and making an approximation.  
Content  • Basics of theory of probability • Boltzmann's law • Entropy maximization and Gibbs free energy minimization • Ligandreceptor: twostate systems and the MWC model • Random walks, diffusion, crowding • Electrostatics for salty solutions • Elasticity: fibers and membranes • Molecular motors • Action potential: HodgkinHuxley model • Photosynthesis and vision • Gene regulation • Development: Turing patterns • Sequences and evolution Theory and corresponding exercises are merged together during the classes.  
Lecture notes  No lecture notes because the two proposed textbooks are more than exhaustive! An extra hour (Mon 17.00 o'clock  18.00) will be proposed via ZOOM to solve together the exercises of the previous week. !!!!! I am using OneNote. All lectures and exercises will be broadcast via ZOOM and correspondingly recorded (link in Moodle) !!!!!  
Literature  • (Statistical Mechanics) K. Dill, S. Bromberg, "Molecular Driving Forces", 2nd Edition, Garland Science, 2010. • (Biophysics) R. Phillips, J. Kondev, J. Theriot, H. Garcia, "Physical Biology of the Cell", 2nd Edition, Garland Science, 2012.  
Prerequisites / Notice  Participants need a good command of • differentiation and integration of a function with one or more variables (basics of Analysis), • Newton's and Coulomb's laws (basics of Mechanics and Electrostatics). Notions of vectors in 2D and 3D are beneficial.  
Competencies 
