Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2021

Interdisciplinary Sciences Bachelor Information
Physical-Chemical Direction
3. Semester (Physical-Chemical Direction)
Electives
The Bachelor's programme in Interdisciplinary Sciences allows students to choose from any subject taught at a Bachelor level at ETH Zurich.

In consultation with the Director of Studies of Interdisciplinary Sciences, every student must establish his/her own individual study programme at the beginning of the 2nd year. See the Programme Regulations 2018 for further details.
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
252-0847-00LComputer Science Information W5 credits2V + 2UR. Sasse, F. Friedrich Wicker
AbstractThe course covers the fundamental concepts of computer programming with a focus on systematic algorithmic problem solving. Taught language is C++. No programming experience is required.
ObjectivePrimary educational objective is to learn programming with C++. After having successfully attended the course, students have a good command of the mechanisms to construct a program. They know the fundamental control and data structures and understand how an algorithmic problem is mapped to a computer program. They have an idea of what happens "behind the scenes" when a program is translated and executed. Secondary goals are an algorithmic computational thinking, understanding the possibilities and limits of programming and to impart the way of thinking like a computer scientist.
ContentThe course covers fundamental data types, expressions and statements, (limits of) computer arithmetic, control statements, functions, arrays, structural types and pointers. The part on object orientation deals with classes, inheritance and polymorphism; simple dynamic data types are introduced as examples. In general, the concepts provided in the course are motivated and illustrated with algorithms and applications.
Lecture notesEnglish lecture notes will be provided during the semester. The lecture notes and the lecture slides will be made available for download on the course web page. Exercises are solved and submitted online.
LiteratureBjarne Stroustrup: Einführung in die Programmierung mit C++, Pearson Studium, 2010
Stephen Prata, C++ Primer Plus, Sixth Edition, Addison Wesley, 2012
Andrew Koenig and Barbara E. Moo: Accelerated C++, Addison-Wesley, 2000
401-2303-00LComplex AnalysisW6 credits3V + 2UT. H. Willwacher
AbstractComplex functions of one variable, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchy theorem and integral formula, singularities, residue theorem, index of closed curves, analytic continuation, special functions, conformal mappings, Riemann mapping theorem.
ObjectiveWorking knowledge of functions of one complex variables; in particular applications of the residue theorem.
LiteratureB. Palka: "An introduction to complex function theory."
Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics. Springer-Verlag, 1991.

E.M. Stein, R. Shakarchi: Complex Analysis. Princeton University Press, 2010

Th. Gamelin: Complex Analysis. Springer 2001

E. Titchmarsh: The Theory of Functions. Oxford University Press

D. Salamon: "Funktionentheorie". Birkhauser, 2011. (In German)

L. Ahlfors: "Complex analysis. An introduction to the theory of analytic functions of one complex variable." International Series in Pure and Applied Mathematics. McGraw-Hill Book Co.

K.Jaenich: Funktionentheorie. Springer Verlag

R.Remmert: Funktionentheorie I. Springer Verlag

E.Hille: Analytic Function Theory. AMS Chelsea Publications
401-2333-00LMethods of Mathematical Physics I Information W6 credits3V + 2UG. Felder
AbstractFourier series. Linear partial differential equations of mathematical physics. Fourier transform. Special functions and eigenfunction expansions. Distributions. Selected problems from quantum mechanics.
Objective
402-0205-00LQuantum Mechanics IW10 credits3V + 2UM. Gaberdiel
AbstractGeneral structure of quantum theory: Hilbert spaces, states and observables, equations of motion, Heisenberg uncertainty relation, symmetries, angular momentum addition, EPR paradox, Schrödinger and Heisenberg picture.
Applications: simple potentials in wave mechanics, scattering and resonance, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom, and perturbation theory.
ObjectiveIntroduction to single-particle quantum mechanics. Familiarity with basic ideas and concepts (quantisation, operator formalism, symmetries, angular momentum, perturbation theory) and generic examples and applications (bound states, tunneling, hydrogen atom, harmonic oscillator). Ability to solve simple problems.
ContentThe beginnings of quantum theory with Planck, Einstein and Bohr; Wave mechanics; Simple examples; The formalism of quantum mechanics (states and observables, Hilbert spaces and operators, the measurement process); Heisenberg uncertainty relation; Harmonic oscillator; Symmetries (in particular rotations); Hydrogen atom; Angular momentum addition; Quantum mechanics and classical physics (EPR paradoxon and Bell's inequality); Perturbation theory.
Lecture notesAuf Moodle, in deutscher Sprache
LiteratureG. Baym, Lectures on Quantum Mechanics
E. Merzbacher, Quantum Mechanics
L.I. Schiff, Quantum Mechanics
R. Feynman and A.R. Hibbs, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals
J.J. Sakurai: Modern Quantum Mechanics
A. Messiah: Quantum Mechanics I
S. Weinberg: Lectures on Quantum Mechanics
Fostered competenciesFostered competencies
Subject-specific CompetenciesConcepts and Theoriesassessed
Techniques and Technologiesnot assessed
Method-specific CompetenciesAnalytical Competenciesassessed
Decision-makingnot assessed
Media and Digital Technologiesnot assessed
Problem-solvingassessed
Project Managementnot assessed
Social CompetenciesCommunicationnot assessed
Cooperation and Teamworknot assessed
Customer Orientationnot assessed
Leadership and Responsibilitynot assessed
Self-presentation and Social Influence not assessed
Sensitivity to Diversitynot assessed
Negotiationnot assessed
Personal CompetenciesAdaptability and Flexibilitynot assessed
Creative Thinkingassessed
Critical Thinkingnot assessed
Integrity and Work Ethicsnot assessed
Self-awareness and Self-reflection not assessed
Self-direction and Self-management not assessed
402-0255-00LIntroduction to Solid State PhysicsW10 credits3V + 2UC. Degen
AbstractThe course provides an introduction to solid state physics, covering several topics that are later discussed in more detail in other more specialized lectures. The central topics are: solids and their lattice structures; interatomic bindings; lattice dynamics, electronic properties of insulators, metals, semiconductors, transport properties, magnetism, superconductivity.
ObjectiveIntroduction to Solid State Physics.
ContentThe course provides an introduction to solid state physics, covering several topics that are later discussed in more detail in other more specialized lectures. The central topics are: solids and their lattice structures; interatomic bindings; lattice dynamics, thermal properties of insulators; metals (classical and quantum mechanical description of electronic states, thermal and transport properties of metals); semiconductors (bandstructure and n/p-type doping); magnetism, superconductivity.
Lecture notesThe script will be available on moodle.
LiteratureIbach & Lüth, Festkörperphysik
C. Kittel, Festkörperphysik
Ashcroft & Mermin, Festkörperphysik
W. Känzig, Kondensierte Materie
Prerequisites / NoticeVoraussetzungen: Physik I, II, III wünschenswert
402-0263-00LAstrophysics IW10 credits3V + 2US. Lilly
AbstractThis introductory course will develop basic concepts in astrophysics as applied to the understanding of the physics of planets, stars, galaxies, and the Universe.
ObjectiveThe course provides an overview of fundamental concepts and physical processes in astrophysics with the dual goals of: i) illustrating physical principles through a variety of astrophysical applications; and ii) providing an overview of research topics in astrophysics.
402-0595-00LSemiconductor NanostructuresW6 credits2V + 1UT. M. Ihn
AbstractThe course covers the foundations of semiconductor nanostructures, e.g., materials, band structures, bandgap engineering and doping, field-effect transistors. The physics of the quantum Hall effect and of common nanostructures based on two-dimensional electron gases will be discussed, i.e., quantum point contacts, Aharonov-Bohm rings and quantum dots.
ObjectiveAt the end of the lecture the student should understand four key phenomena of electron transport in semiconductor nanostructures:
1. The integer quantum Hall effect
2. Conductance quantization in quantum point contacts
3. the Aharonov-Bohm effect
4. Coulomb blockade in quantum dots
Content1. Introduction and overview
2. Semiconductor crystals: Fabrication and molecular beam epitaxy
3. Band structures of semiconductors
4. k.p-theory, effective mass, envelope functions
5. Heterostructures and band engineering, doping
6. Surfaces and metal-semiconductor contacts, fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures
7. Heterostructures and two-dimensional electron gases
8. Drude Transport and scattering mechanisms
9. Single- and bilayer graphene
10. Electron transport in quantum point contacts; Landauer-Büttiker description, ballistic transport experiments
11. Interference effects in Aharonov-Bohm rings
12. Electron in a magnetic field, Shubnikov-de Haas effect
13. Integer quantum Hall effect
14. Coulomb blockade and quantum dots
Lecture notesT. Ihn, Semiconductor Nanostructures, Quantum States and Electronic Transport, Oxford University Press, 2010.
LiteratureIn addition to the lecture notes, the following supplementary books can be recommended:
1. J. H. Davies: The Physics of Low-Dimensional Semiconductors, Cambridge University Press (1998)
2. S. Datta: Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems, Cambridge University Press (1997)
3. D. Ferry: Transport in Nanostructures, Cambridge University Press (1997)
4. T. M. Heinzel: Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures: an Introduction, Wiley-VCH (2003)
5. Beenakker, van Houten: Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures, in: Semiconductor Heterostructures and Nanostructures, Academic Press (1991)
6. Y. Imry: Introduction to Mesoscopic Physics, Oxford University Press (1997)
Prerequisites / NoticeThe lecture is suitable for all physics students beyond the bachelor of science degree. Basic knowledge of solid state physics is a prerequisit. Very ambitioned students in the third year may be able to follow. The lecture can be chosen as part of the PhD-program. The course is taught in English.
Fostered competenciesFostered competencies
Subject-specific CompetenciesConcepts and Theoriesassessed
Techniques and Technologiesassessed
Method-specific CompetenciesAnalytical Competenciesassessed
Media and Digital Technologiesassessed
Problem-solvingnot assessed
Social CompetenciesCommunicationnot assessed
Self-presentation and Social Influence assessed
Sensitivity to Diversitynot assessed
Personal CompetenciesCreative Thinkingassessed
Critical Thinkingassessed
Integrity and Work Ethicsassessed
Self-direction and Self-management not assessed
402-2203-01LClassical Mechanics Information W7 credits4V + 2UR. Renner
AbstractA conceptual introduction to theoretical physics: Newtonian mechanics, central force problem, oscillations, Lagrangian mechanics, symmetries and conservation laws, spinning top, relativistic space-time structure, particles in an electromagnetic field, Hamiltonian mechanics, canonical transformations, integrable systems, Hamilton-Jacobi equation.
ObjectiveFundamental understanding of the description of Mechanics in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation. Detailed understanding of important applications, in particular, the Kepler problem, the physics of rigid bodies (spinning top) and of oscillatory systems.
529-0051-00LAnalytical Chemistry IW3 credits3GD. Günther, M.‑O. Ebert, G. Schwarz, R. Zenobi
AbstractIntroduction into the most important spectroscopical methods and their applications to gain structural information.
ObjectiveKnowledge about the necessary theoretical background of spectroscopical methods and their practical applications
ContentApplication oriented basics of organic and inorganic instrumental analysis and of the empirical employment of structure elucidation methods:
Mass spectrometry: Ionization methods, mass separation, isotope signals, rules of fragmentation, rearrangements.
NMR spectroscopy: Experimental basics, chemical shift, spin-spin coupling.
IR spectroscopy: Revisiting topics like harmonic oscillator, normal vibrations, coupled oscillating systems (in accordance to the basics of the related lecture in physical chemistry); sample preparation, acquisition techniques, law of Lambert and Beer, interpretation of IR spectra; Raman spectroscopy.
UV/VIS spectroscopy: Basics, interpretation of electron spectra. Circular dichroism (CD) und optical rotation dispersion (ORD).
Atomic absorption, emission, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: Basics, sample preparation.
Lecture notesScript will be for the production price
Literature- R. Kellner, J.-M. Mermet, M. Otto, H. M. Widmer (Eds.) Analytical Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1998;
- D. A. Skoog und J. J. Leary, Instrumentelle Analytik, Springer, Heidelberg, 1996;
- M. Hesse, H. Meier, B. Zeeh, Spektroskopische Methoden in der organischen Chemie, 5. überarbeitete Auflage, Thieme, Stuttgart, 1995
- E. Pretsch, P. Bühlmann, C. Affolter, M. Badertscher, Spektroskopische Daten zur Strukturaufklärung organischer verbindungen, 4. Auflage, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2001-
Kläntschi N., Lienemann P., Richner P., Vonmont H: Elementanalytik. Instrumenteller Nachweis und Bestimmung von Elementen und deren Verbindungen. Spektrum Analytik, 1996, Hardcover, 339 S., ISBN 3-86025-134-1.
Prerequisites / NoticeExcercises are integrated in the lectures. In addition, attendance in the lecture 529-0289-00 "Instrumental analysis of organic compounts" (4th semester) is recommended.
529-0121-00LInorganic Chemistry I Information W3 credits2V + 1UH. Grützmacher, P. Steinegger
AbstractDiscussion of syntheses, structures, and general reactivity of coordination compounds of the transition metals as well as the lanthanides and actinides. Introduction of methods of characterization, physical-chemical properties of coordination compounds as well as principles of radiochemistry.
ObjectiveThe students will learn and understand the methodological basics of binding theory in complexes of transition metals. They will be able to explain the structure, chemical bonding, spectroscopic properties as well as general strategies for the synthesis of complexes of transition metals. The students will acquire knowledge on the fundamentals of radioactive decay and radiochemistry. Furthermore, they will be familiar with the basics of inorganic chemistry of lanthanides and actinides.
ContentThis course consists of the following parts, which introduce the students to the chemistry of transition metals as well as lanthanides and actinides: 1) General definitions and terms in coordination chemistry; 2) Coordination numbers and structures; 3) Ligand types; 4) The chemical bond in coordination compounds part A: Crystal field theory and ligand field theory; 5) The chemical bond in coordination compounds part B: Qualitative MO theory; 6) Reactivity and reaction mechanisms of coordination compounds; 7) Group theory and character tables; 8) Properties and characterization of coordination compounds; 9) Introduction to radiochemistry; 10) Principles of the chemistry of the lanthanides and actinides.
Lecture notesEine kommentierte Foliensammlung ist im HCI-Shop erhältlich.
Literature- J. E. Huheey, E. Keiter, R. Keiter: Anorganische Chemie, Prinzipien von Struktur und Reaktivität, De Gruyter, 5. Auflage, 2014 (ebook available at ETH Zurich).
- N. Wiberg, Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, De Gruyter, 102. Auflage, 2008 (ebook available at ETH Zurich).
Fostered competenciesFostered competencies
Subject-specific CompetenciesConcepts and Theoriesassessed
Techniques and Technologiesassessed
Method-specific CompetenciesAnalytical Competenciesnot assessed
Decision-makingnot assessed
Media and Digital Technologiesnot assessed
Problem-solvingassessed
Project Managementnot assessed
Social CompetenciesCommunicationnot assessed
Cooperation and Teamworknot assessed
Customer Orientationnot assessed
Leadership and Responsibilitynot assessed
Self-presentation and Social Influence not assessed
Sensitivity to Diversitynot assessed
Negotiationnot assessed
Personal CompetenciesAdaptability and Flexibilitynot assessed
Creative Thinkingassessed
Critical Thinkingassessed
Integrity and Work Ethicsnot assessed
Self-awareness and Self-reflection not assessed
Self-direction and Self-management not assessed
529-0221-00LOrganic Chemistry IW3 credits2V + 1UH. Wennemers
AbstractChemical reactivity and classes of compounds. Eliminations, fragmentations, chemistry of aldehydes and ketones (hydrates, acetals, imines, enamines, nucleophilic addition of organometallic compounds, reactions with phosphorus and sulfur ylides; reactions of enolates as nucleophiles) and of carboxylic acid derivatives. Aldol reactions.
ObjectiveAcquisition of a basic repertoire of synthetic methods including important reactions of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid derivatives, as well as eliminations and fragmentations. Particular emphasis is placed on the understanding of reaction mechanisms and the correlation between structure and reactivity. A deeper understanding of the concepts presented during the lecture is reached by solving the problems handed out each time and discussed one week later in the exercise class.
ContentChemical reactivity and classes of compounds. Eliminations, fragmentations, chemistry of aldehydes and ketones (hydrates, acetals, imines, enamines, nucleophilic addition of organometallic compounds, reactions with phosphorus and sulfur ylides; reactions of enolates as nucleophiles) and of carboxylic acid derivatives. Aldol reactions.
Lecture notesA pdf file of the printed lecture notes is provided online. Supplementary material may be provided online.
LiteratureNo set textbooks. Optional literature will be proposed at the beginning of the class and in the lecture notes.
701-0023-00LAtmosphere Information W3 credits2VE. Fischer, T. Peter
AbstractBasic principles of the atmosphere, physical structure and chemical composition, trace gases, atmospheric cycles, circulation, stability, radiation, condensation, clouds, oxidation capacity and ozone layer.
ObjectiveUnderstanding of basic physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere. Understanding of mechanisms of and interactions between: weather - climate, atmosphere - ocean - continents, troposhere - stratosphere. Understanding of environmentally relevant structures and processes on vastly differing scales. Basis for the modelling of complex interrelations in the atmospehre.
ContentBasic principles of the atmosphere, physical structure and chemical composition, trace gases, atmospheric cycles, circulation, stability, radiation, condensation, clouds, oxidation capacity and ozone layer.
Lecture notesWritten information will be supplied.
Literature- John H. Seinfeld and Spyros N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, Wiley, New York, 1998.
- Gösta H. Liljequist, Allgemeine Meteorologie, Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1974.
701-0461-00LNumerical Methods in Environmental Sciences Information W3 credits2GC. Schär, C. Zeman
AbstractThis lecture imparts the mathematical basis necessary for the development and application of
numerical models in the field of Environmental Science. The lecture material includes an introduction into numerical techniques for solving ordinary and partial differential equations, as well as exercises aimed at the realization of simple models.
ObjectiveThis lecture imparts the mathematical basis necessary for the development and application of
numerical models in the field of Environmental Science. The lecture material includes an introduction into numerical techniques for solving ordinary and partial differential equations, as well as exercises aimed at the realization of simple models.
ContentClassification of numerical problems, introduction to finite-difference methods, time integration schemes, non-linearity, conservative numerical techniques, an overview of spectral and finite-element methods. Examples and exercises from a diverse cross-section of Environmental Science.

Three obligatory exercises, each two hours in length, are integrated into the lecture. The implementation language is Python (previous experience not necessary: a Phython introduction is given). Example programs and graphics tools are supplied.
Lecture notesPer Web auf Link
LiteratureList of literature is provided.
701-0473-00LWeather Systems Information W3 credits2GM. A. Sprenger, F. Scholder-Aemisegger
AbstractSatellite observations; analysis of vertical soundings; geostrophic and thermal wind; cyclones at mid-latitude; global circulation; north-atlantic oscillation; atmospheric blocking situtations; Eulerian and Lagrangian perspective; potential vorticity; Alpine dynamics (storms, orographic wind); planetary boundary layer
ObjectiveThe students are able to
- explain basic measurement and analysis techniques that are relevant in atmospheric dynamics
- to discuss the mathematical basics of atmospheric dynamics, based on selected atmospheric flow phenomena
- to explain the basic dynamics of the global circulation and of synoptic- and meso-scale flow features
- to explain how mountains influence the atmospheric flow on different scales
- basic understanding of the role of moist adiabatic processes for weather systems and why stable water isotopes are useful in this context
ContentSatellite observations; analysis of vertical soundings; geostrophic and thermal wind; cyclones at mid-latitude; global circulation; north-atlantic oscillation; atmospheric blocking situtations; Eulerian and Lagrangian perspective; potential vorticity; Alpine dynamics (storms, orographic wind); planetary boundary layer
Lecture notesLecture notes and slides
LiteratureAtmospheric Science, An Introductory Survey
John M. Wallace and Peter V. Hobbs, Academic Press
701-0475-00LAtmospheric PhysicsW3 credits2GU. Lohmann
AbstractThis course covers the basics of atmospheric physics, which consist of: cloud and precipitation formation especially prediction of thunderstorm development, aerosol physics as well as artificial weather modification.

Webpage for course: https://iac.ethz.ch/edu/courses/bachelor/vertiefung/atmospheric-physics.html
ObjectiveStudents are able
- to explain the mechanisms of thunderstorm formation using knowledge of thermodynamics and cloud microphysics.
- to evaluate the significance of clouds and aerosol particles for artificial weather modification.
ContentThe course starts with introducing selected concepts of thermodynamics for atmospheric processes: The students learn the concept of the thermodynamic equilibrium and derive the Clausius-Clayperon equation from the first law of thermodynamics. This equation is central for the phase transitions in clouds.

Students also learn to classify radiosondes with the help the thermodynamic charts (tephigrams) and to identify cloud base, cloud top, available convective energy in them. Atmospheric mixing processes are introduced for fog formation. The concept of the air parcel is used to understand convection.

Aerosol particles are introduced in terms of their physical properties and their role in cloud formation based on Köhler theory. Thereafter cloud microphysical processes including ice nucleation are discussed.

With these basics, the different forms of precipitation formation (convective vs. stratiform) is discussed as well as the formation and different stages of severe convective storms.

The concepts are applied to understand and judge the validity of different proposed articifical weather modification ideas.
Lecture notesPowerpoint slides and chapters from the textbook will be made available on moodle: https://moodle-app2.let.ethz.ch/course/view.php?id=15367
LiteratureLohmann, U., Lüönd, F. and Mahrt, F., An Introduction to Clouds:
From the Microscale to Climate, Cambridge Univ. Press, 391 pp., 2016.
Prerequisites / Notice50% of the time we use the concept of "flipped classroom" (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flipped_classroom), which we introduce at the beginning.

We offer a lab tour, in which we demonstrate how some of the processes discussed in the lectures are measured with instruments.

There is a additional tutorial right after each lecture to give you the chance to ask further questions and discuss the exercises. The participation is recommended but voluntary.
Fostered competenciesFostered competencies
Subject-specific CompetenciesConcepts and Theoriesassessed
Method-specific CompetenciesAnalytical Competenciesassessed
Problem-solvingassessed
Social CompetenciesCommunicationassessed
Personal CompetenciesCritical Thinkingassessed
Self-direction and Self-management assessed
701-0501-00LPedosphereW3 credits2VR. Kretzschmar
AbstractIntroduction to the formation and properties of soils as a function of parent rock, landscape position, climate, and soil organisms. Complex relationships between soil forming processes, physical and chemical soil properties, soil biota, and ecological soil properties are explained and illustrated by numerous examples.
ObjectiveUnderstanding of soils as integral parts of ecosystems, development and distribution of soils as a function of environmental factors, and processes leading to soil degradation.
ContentDefinition of the pedosphere, soil functions, rocks as parent materials, minerals and weathering, soil organisms, soil organic matter, soil formation, principles of soil classification, global soil regions, physical soil properties and functions, chemical soil properties and functions, soil fertility, land use and soil degradation.
Lecture notesPolybook
Literature- Scheffer/Schachtschabel - Soil Science, Springer, Heidelberg, 2016.

- Brady N.C. and Weil, R.R. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 14th ed. Prentice Hall, 2007.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: Basic knowledge in chemistry, biology and geology.
752-4001-00LMicrobiologyW2 credits2VM. Ackermann, M. Schuppler, J. Vorholt-Zambelli
AbstractTeaching of basic knowledge in microbiology with main focus on Microbial Cell Structure and Function, Molecular Genetics, Microbial Growth, Metabolic Diversity, Phylogeny and Taxonomy, Prokaryotic Diversity, Human-Microbe Interactions, Biotechnology.
ObjectiveTeaching of basic knowledge in microbiology.
ContentDer Schwerpunkt liegt auf den Themen: Bakterielle Zellbiologie, Molekulare Genetik, Wachstumsphysiologie, Biochemische Diversität, Phylogenie und Taxonomie, Prokaryotische Vielfalt, Interaktion zwischen Menschen und Mikroorganismen sowie Biotechnologie.
Lecture notesWird von den jeweiligen Dozenten ausgegeben.
LiteratureDie Behandlung der Themen erfolgt auf der Basis des Lehrbuchs Brock, Biology of Microorganisms
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