Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2020

Physics Master Information
Electives
General Electives
Students may choose General Electives from the entire course programme of ETH Zurich - with the following restrictions: courses that belong to the first or second year of a Bachelor curriculum at ETH Zurich as well as courses from GESS "Science in Perspective" are not eligible here.
The following courses are explicitly recommended to physics students by their lecturers. (Courses in this list may be assigned to the category "General Electives" directly in myStudies. For the category assignment of other eligible courses keep the choice "no category" and take contact with the Study Administration (www.phys.ethz.ch/studies/study-administration.html) after having received the credits.)
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
227-1046-00LComputer Simulations of Sensory Systems Information
Does not take place this semester.
W3 credits3G
AbstractThis course deals with computer simulations of the human auditory, visual, and balance system. The lecture will cover the physiological and mechanical mechanisms of these sensory systems. And in the exercises, the simulations will be implemented with Python. The simulations will be such that their output could be used as input for actual neuro-sensory prostheses.
ObjectiveOur sensory systems provide us with information about what is happening in the world surrounding us. Thereby they transform incoming mechanical, electromagnetic, and chemical signals into “action potentials”, the language of the central nervous system.
The main goal of this lecture is to describe how our sensors achieve these transformations, how they can be reproduced with computational tools. For example, our auditory system performs approximately a “Fourier transformation” of the incoming sound waves; our early visual system is optimized for finding edges in images that are projected onto our retina; and our balance system can be well described with a “control system” that transforms linear and rotational movements into nerve impulses.
In the exercises that go with this lecture, we will use Python to reproduce the transformations achieved by our sensory systems. The goal is to write programs whose output could be used as input for actual neurosensory prostheses: such prostheses have become commonplace for the auditory system, and are under development for the visual and the balance system. For the corresponding exercises, at least some basic programing experience is required!!
ContentThe following topics will be covered:
• Introduction into the signal processing in nerve cells.
• Introduction into Python.
• Simplified simulation of nerve cells (Hodgkins-Huxley model).
• Description of the auditory system, including the application of Fourier transforms on recorded sounds.
• Description of the visual system, including the retina and the information processing in the visual cortex. The corresponding exercises will provide an introduction to digital image processing.
• Description of the mechanics of our balance system, and the “Control System”-language that can be used for an efficient description of the corresponding signal processing (essentially Laplace transforms and control systems).
Lecture notesFor each module additional material will be provided on the e-learning platform "moodle". The main content of the lecture is also available as a wikibook, under http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Sensory_Systems
LiteratureOpen source information is available as wikibook http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Sensory_Systems

For good overviews I recommend:

• Principles of Neural Science (5th Ed, 2012), by Eric Kandel, James Schwartz, Thomas Jessell, Steven Siegelbaum, A.J. Hudspeth
ISBN 0071390111 / 9780071390118
THE standard textbook on neuroscience.

• L. R. Squire, D. Berg, F. E. Bloom, Lac S. du, A. Ghosh, and N. C. Spitzer. Fundamental Neuroscience, Academic Press - Elsevier, 2012 [ISBN: 9780123858702].
This book covers the biological components, from the functioning of an individual ion channels through the various senses, all the way to consciousness. And while it does not cover the computational aspects, it nevertheless provides an excellent overview of the underlying neural processes of sensory systems.

• G. Mather. Foundations of Sensation and Perception, 2nd Ed Psychology Press, 2009 [ISBN: 978-1-84169-698-0 (hardcover), oder 978-1-84169-699-7 (paperback)]
A coherent, up-to-date introduction to the basic facts and theories concerning human sensory perception.

• The best place to get started with Python programming are the https://scipy-lectures.org/
Prerequisites / Notice• Since I have to gravel from Linz, Austria, to Zurich to give this lecture, I plan to hold this lecture in blocks (every 2nd week).
• In addition to the lectures, this course includes external lab visits to institutes actively involved in research on the relevant sensory systems.
465-0952-00LBiomedical Photonics
Does not take place this semester.
W3 credits2V
AbstractThe lecture introduces the principles of generation, propagation and detection of light and its therapeutic and diagnostic application in medicine.
ObjectiveThe lecture provides knowledge about light sources and light delivery systems, optical biomedical imaging techniques, optical measurement technologies and their specific applications in medicine. Fundamental principles will be accompanied by practical and contemporary examples. Different selected optical systems used in diagnostics and therapy will be discussed.
ContentOptics always was strongly connected to the observation and interpretation of physiological phenomenon. The basic knowledge of optics for example was initially gained by studying the function of the human eye. Nowadays, biomedical optics is an independent research field that is no longer restricted to the observation of physiological processes but studies diagnostic and therapeutic problems in medicine. A basic prerequisite for applying optical techniques in medicine is the understanding of the physical properties of light, the light propagation in and its interaction with tissue. The lecture gives inside into the generation, propagation and detection of light, its propagation in tissue and into selected optical applications in medicine. Various optical imaging techniques (optical coherence tomography or optoacoustics) as well as therapeutic laser applications (refractive surgery, photodynamic therapy or nanosurgery) will be discussed.
Lecture noteswill be provided via Internet (Ilias)
Literature- M. Born, E. Wolf, "Principles of Optics", Pergamon Press
- B.E.A. Saleh, M.C. Teich, "Fundamentals of Photonics", John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
- O. Svelto, "Principles of Lasers", Plenum Press
- J. Eichler, T. Seiler, "Lasertechnik in der Medizin", Springer Verlag
- M.H. Niemz, "Laser-Tissue Interaction", Springer Verlag
- A.J. Welch, M.J.C. van Gemert, "Optical-thermal response of laser-irradiated tissue", Plenum Press
Prerequisites / NoticeLanguage of instruction: English
This is the same course unit (465-0952-00L) with former course title "Medical Optics".
151-0160-00LNuclear Energy SystemsW4 credits2V + 1UH.‑M. Prasser, P. Burgherr, I. Günther-Leopold, W. Hummel, T. Kämpfer, T. Kober, X. Zhang
AbstractNuclear energy and sustainability, uranium production, uranium enrichment, nuclear fuel production, reprocessing of spent fuel, nuclear waste disposal, Life Cycle Analysis, energy and materials balance of Nuclear Power Plants.
ObjectiveStudents get an overview on the physical and chemical fundamentals, the technological processes and the environmental impact of the full energy conversion chain of nuclear power generation. The are enabled to assess to potentials and risks arising from embedding nuclear power in a complex energy system.
Content(1) survey on the cosmic and geological origin of uranium, methods of uranium mining, separation of uranium from the ore, (2) enrichment of uranium (diffusion cells, ultra-centrifuges, alternative methods), chemical conversion uranium oxid - fluorid - oxid, fuel rod fabrication processes, (3) fuel reprocessing (hydrochemical, pyrochemical) including modern developments of deep partitioning as well as methods to treat and minimize the amount and radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. (4) nuclear waste disposal, waste categories and origin, geological and engineered barriers in deep geological repositories, the project of a deep geological disposal for radioactive waste in Switzerland, (5) methods to measure the sustainability of energy systems, comparison of nuclear energy with other energy sources, environmental impact of the nuclear energy system as a whole, including the question of CO2 emissions, CO2 reduction costs, radioactive releases from the power plant, the fuel chain and the final disposal. The material balance of different fuel cycles with thermal and fast reactors isdiscussed.
Lecture notesLecture slides will be distributed as handouts and in digital form
151-0156-00LSafety of Nuclear Power Plants Information W4 credits2V + 1UH.‑M. Prasser, V. Dang, L. Podofillini
AbstractKnowledge about safety concepts and requirements of nuclear power plants and their implementation in deterministic safety concepts and safety systems. Knowledge about behavior under accident conditions and about the methods of probabilistic risk analysis and how to handle results. Introduction into key elements of the enhanced safety of nuclear systems for the future.
ObjectiveDeep understanding of safety requirements, concepts and system of nuclear power plants, knowledge of deterministic and probabilistic methods for safety analysis, aspects of nuclear safety research, licensing of nuclear power plant operation. Overview on key elements of the enhanced safety of nuclear systems for the future.
Content(1) Introduction into the specific safety issues of nuclear power plants, main facts of health effects of ionizing radiation, defense in depth approach. (2) Reactor protection and reactivity control, reactivity induced accidents (RIA). (3) Loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA), emergency core cooling systems. (4) Short introduction into severe accidents (Beyond Design Base Accidents, BDBA). (5) Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA level 1,2,3). (6) Passive safety systems. (7) Safety of innovative reactor concepts.
Lecture notesScript:
Hand-outs of lecture slides will be distributed
Audio recording of lectures will be provided
Script "Short introduction into basics of nuclear power"
LiteratureS. Glasston & A. Sesonke: Nuclear Reactor Engineering, Reactor System Engineering, Ed. 4, Vol. 2., Chapman & Hall, NY, 1994
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites:
Recommended in advance (not binding): 151-0163-00L Nuclear Energy Conversion
151-0166-00LPhysics of Nuclear Reactor IIW4 credits3GS. Pelloni, K. Mikityuk, A. Pautz
AbstractReactor physics calculations for assessing the performance and safety of nuclear power plants are, in practice, carried out using large computer codes simulating different key phenomena. This course provides a basis for understanding state-of-the-art calculational methodologies in the above context.
ObjectiveStudents are introduced to advanced methods of reactor physics analysis for nuclear power plants.
ContentCross-sections preparation. Slowing down theory. Differential form of the neutron transport equation and method of discrete ordinates (Sn). Integral form of the neutron transport equation and method of characteristics. Method of Monte-Carlo. Modeling of fuel depletion. Lattice calculations and cross-section parametrization. Modeling of full core neutronics using nodal methods. Modeling of feedbacks from fuel behavior and thermal hydraulics. Point and spatial reactor kinetics. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.
Lecture notesHand-outs will be provided on the website.
LiteratureChapters from various text books on Reactor Theory, etc.
151-2016-00LRadiation Imaging for Industrial ApplicationsW4 credits2V + 1UH.‑M. Prasser, R. Adams
AbstractThe course gives an overview of the physics and practical principles of imaging techniques using ionizing radiation such as X-rays, gamma photons, and neutrons in the context of various industrial (non-medical) challenges. This includes the interaction of radiation with matter, parameters affecting imaging performance, source and detector technology, image processing, and tomographic techniques.
ObjectiveUnderstanding of the principles and applicability of various radiation-based imaging techniques including radiography and tomography to various industrial challenges.
Contentprinciples of radiation imaging; physics of interaction of radiation with matter (X-ray, gamma, neutron); X-ray source physics and technology; neutron source physics and technology; radiation detection principles; radiation detection as applied to imaging; radiography (image quality parameters, image processing); computed tomography (image reconstruction techniques, artifacts, image processing); overview of more exotic techniques (e.g. dual modality, fast neutrons, time of flight); general industrial applications, security applications; special issues in dynamic imaging and example applications; PET/PEPT imaging; nuclear energy applications
Lecture notesLecture slides will be provided, as well as references for further reading
Literature- Wang, Industrial Tomography: Systems and Applications
- Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement
- Kak & Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging
Prerequisites / NoticeRecommended courses (not binding): 151-0163-00L Nuclear Energy Conversion, 151-2035-00L, Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, 151-0123-00L, Experimental Methods for Engineers, MATLAB skills for exercises.
151-1906-00LMultiphase FlowW4 credits3GH.‑M. Prasser
AbstractBasics in multiphase flow systems,, mainly gas-liquid, is presented in this course. An introduction summarizes the characteristics of multi phase flows, some theoretical models are discussed. Following we focus on pipe flow, film and bubbly/droplet flow. Finally specific measuring methods are shown and a summary of the CFD models for multiphases is presented.
ObjectiveThis course contributes to a deep understanding of complex multiphase systems and allows to predict multiphase conditions to design appropriate systems/apparatus. Actual examples and new developments are presented.
ContentThe course gives an overview on following subjects: Basics in multiphase systems, pipeflow, films, bubbles and bubble columns, droplets, measuring techniques, multiphase flow in microsystems, numerical procedures with multiphase flows.
Lecture notesLecturing notes are available (copy of slides or a german script) partly in english
LiteratureSpecial literature is recommended for each chapter.
Prerequisites / NoticeThe course builds on the basics in fluidmechanics.
151-0530-00LNonlinear Dynamics and Chaos IIW4 credits4GG. Haller
AbstractThe internal structure of chaos; Hamiltonian dynamical systems; Normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds; Geometric singular perturbation theory; Finite-time dynamical systems
ObjectiveThe course introduces the student to advanced, comtemporary concepts of nonlinear dynamical systems analysis.
ContentI. The internal structure of chaos: symbolic dynamics, Bernoulli shift map, sub-shifts of finite type; chaos is numerical iterations.

II.Hamiltonian dynamical systems: conservation and recurrence, stability of fixed points, integrable systems, invariant tori, Liouville-Arnold-Jost Theorem, KAM theory.

III. Normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds: Crash course on differentiable manifolds, existence, persistence, and smoothness, applications.
IV. Geometric singular perturbation theory: slow manifolds and their stability, physical examples. V. Finite-time dynamical system; detecting Invariant manifolds and coherent structures in finite-time flows
Lecture notesStudents have to prepare their own lecture notes
LiteratureBooks will be recommended in class
Prerequisites / NoticeNonlinear Dynamics I (151-0532-00) or equivalent
151-0116-10LHigh Performance Computing for Science and Engineering (HPCSE) for Engineers II Information W4 credits4GP. Koumoutsakos, S. M. Martin
AbstractThis course focuses on programming methods and tools for parallel computing on multi and many-core architectures. Emphasis will be placed on practical and computational aspects of Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation including the implementation of relevant algorithms on HPC architectures.
ObjectiveThe course will teach
- programming models and tools for multi and many-core architectures
- fundamental concepts of Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) for computational models of systems in Engineering and Life Sciences
ContentHigh Performance Computing:
- Advanced topics in shared-memory programming
- Advanced topics in MPI
- GPU architectures and CUDA programming

Uncertainty Quantification:
- Uncertainty quantification under parametric and non-parametric modeling uncertainty
- Bayesian inference with model class assessment
- Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation
Lecture noteshttps://www.cse-lab.ethz.ch/teaching/hpcse-ii_fs20/
Class notes, handouts
Literature- Class notes
- Introduction to High Performance Computing for Scientists and Engineers, G. Hager and G. Wellein
- CUDA by example, J. Sanders and E. Kandrot
- Data Analysis: A Bayesian Tutorial, D. Sivia and J. Skilling
- An introduction to Bayesian Analysis - Theory and Methods, J. Gosh, N. Delampady and S. Tapas
- Bayesian Data Analysis, A. Gelman, J. Carlin, H. Stern, D. Dunson, A. Vehtari and D. Rubin
- Machine Learning: A Bayesian and Optimization Perspective, S. Theodorides
Prerequisites / NoticeStudents must be familiar with the content of High Performance Computing for Science and Engineering I (151-0107-20L)
327-2222-00LSoft Materials: from Fundamentals to Applications Information
Does not take place this semester.
W3 credits2V + 1UL. Isa
AbstractThis course consists of a series of lectures, each focusing on a specific fundamental concept previously encountered by the student during basic courses, and on its direct relevance for soft materials and their applications (e.g. colloidal crystals, dense suspensions, emulsions, foams and liquid crystals).
ObjectiveSoft materials, such as complex fluids, polymers, liquid crystals, foams etc. are of paramount importance in many technological applications and consumer products. Additionally, they also work as "open laboratories", where basic phenomena, normally studied at the atomic or molecular length and time scales, can be easily and directly observed at the micro and nanoscale.
The aim of this course is to offer the student the possibility to connect fundamental concepts (e.g. entropy or thermodynamic equilibrium), which too often stay as abstract constructions, to direct examples of soft materials. At the end of the course the student will have acquired advanced knowledge of soft matter systems and strengthened his/her background in basic physics and physical chemistry.
ContentEach lecture will be divided into two parts. In the first part a specific concept will be introduced and discussed. In the second part the implications for soft materials will be presented, often with practical demonstration in the class.
Examples are:
- Entropy and phase transitions; application to colloidal crystals.
- Thermodynamics versus kinetics; application to Pickering emulsions.
- Excluded volume; application to liquid crystals.
The detailed series will be presented at the beginning of the course.
Lecture notesNotes will be handed out during the lectures and published online before each lecture.
LiteratureProvided in the lecture notes.
Prerequisites / NoticePre-existing notions of physics, thermodynamics, physical chemistry and statistical mechanics are necessary
227-0161-00LMolecular and Materials Modelling Information W4 credits2V + 2UD. Passerone, C. Pignedoli
AbstractThe course introduces the basic techniques to interpret experiments with contemporary atomistic simulation, including force fields or ab initio based molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo. Structural and electronic properties will be simulated hands-on for realistic systems.
The modern methods of "big data" analysis applied to the screening of chemical structures will be introduced with examples.
ObjectiveThe ability to select a suitable atomistic approach to model a nanoscale system, and to employ a simulation package to compute quantities providing a theoretically sound explanation of a given experiment. This includes knowledge of empirical force fields and insight in electronic structure theory, in particular density functional theory (DFT). Understanding the advantages of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics (MD), and how these simulation methods can be used to compute various static and dynamic material properties. Basic understanding on how to simulate different spectroscopies (IR, X-ray, UV/VIS). Performing a basic computational experiment: interpreting the experimental input, choosing theory level and model approximations, performing the calculations, collecting and representing the results, discussing the comparison to the experiment.
Content-Classical force fields in molecular and condensed phase systems
-Methods for finding stationary states in a potential energy surface
-Monte Carlo techniques applied to nanoscience
-Classical molecular dynamics: extracting quantities and relating to experimentally accessible properties
-From molecular orbital theory to quantum chemistry: chemical reactions
-Condensed phase systems: from periodicity to band structure
-Larger scale systems and their electronic properties: density functional theory and its approximations
-Advanced molecular dynamics: Correlation functions and extracting free energies
-The use of Smooth Overlap of Atomic Positions (SOAP) descriptors in the evaluation of the (dis)similarity of crystalline, disordered and molecular compounds
Lecture notesA script will be made available and complemented by literature references.
LiteratureD. Frenkel and B. Smit, Understanding Molecular Simulations, Academic Press, 2002.

M. P. Allen and D.J. Tildesley, Computer Simulations of Liquids, Oxford University Press 1990.

C. J. Cramer, Essentials of Computational Chemistry. Theories and Models, Wiley 2004

G. L. Miessler, P. J. Fischer, and Donald A. Tarr, Inorganic Chemistry, Pearson 2014.

K. Huang, Statistical Mechanics, Wiley, 1987.

N. W. Ashcroft, N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Saunders College 1976.

E. Kaxiras, Atomic and Electronic Structure of Solids, Cambridge University Press 2010.
529-0442-00LAdvanced Kinetics Information W6 credits3GJ. Richardson
AbstractThis lecture covers the theoretical and conceptual foundations of quantum dynamics in molecular systems. Particular attention is taken to derive and compare quantum and classical approximations which can be used to simulate the dynamics of molecular systems and the reaction rate constant used in chemical kinetics.
ObjectiveThe theory of quantum dynamics is derived from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. This is illustrated with molecular examples including tunnelling, recurrences, nonadiabatic crossings. We consider thermal distributions, correlation functions, interaction with light and nonadiabatic effects. Quantum scattering theory is introduced and applied to discuss molecular collisions. The dynamics of systems with a very large number of quantum states are discussed to understand the transition from microscopic to macroscopic dynamics. A rigorous rate theory is obtained both from a quantum-mechanical picture as well as within the classical approximation. The approximations leading to conventional transition-state theory for polyatomic reactions are discussed. In this way, relaxation and irreversibility will be explained which are at the foundation of statistical mechanics.

By the end of the course, the student will have learned many ways to simplify the complex problem posed by quantum dynamics. They will understand when and why certain approximations are valid in different situations and will use this to make quantitative and qualitative predictions about how different molecular systems behave.
Lecture notesWill be available online.
LiteratureD. J. Tannor, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics: A Time-Dependent Perspective
R. D. Levine, Molecular Reaction Dynamics
S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy
Prerequisites / Notice529-0422-00L Physical Chemistry II: Chemical Reaction Dynamics
529-0434-00LPhysical Chemistry V: Spectroscopy Information W4 credits3GH. J. Wörner
AbstractAbsorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation; transition probabilities, rate equations; Einstein coefficients and lasers; selection rules and symmetry; band shape, energy transfer, and broadening mechanisms; atomic spectroscopy; molecular spectroscopy: vibration and rotation; spectroscopy of clusters, nanoparticles and condensed phases
ObjectiveThe lecture is devoted to atomic, molecular, and condensed phase spectroscopy treating both theoretical and experimental aspects. The focus is on the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter.
ContentAbsorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation; transition probabilities, rate equations; Einstein coefficients and lasers; selection rules and symmetry; band shape, energy transfer, and broadening mechanisms; atomic spectroscopy; molecular spectroscopy: vibration and rotation; spectroscopy of clusters, nanoparticles and condensed phases
Lecture notesis partly available
529-0440-00LPhysical Electrochemistry and ElectrocatalysisW6 credits3GT. Schmidt
AbstractFundamentals of electrochemistry, electrochemical electron transfer, electrochemical processes, electrochemical kinetics, electrocatalysis, surface electrochemistry, electrochemical energy conversion processes and introduction into the technologies (e.g., fuel cell, electrolysis), electrochemical methods (e.g., voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy), mass transport.
ObjectiveProviding an overview and in-depth understanding of Fundamentals of electrochemistry, electrochemical electron transfer, electrochemical processes, electrochemical kinetics, electrocatalysis, surface electrochemistry, electrochemical energy conversion processes (fuel cell, electrolysis), electrochemical methods and mass transport during electrochemical reactions. The students will learn about the importance of electrochemical kinetics and its relation to industrial electrochemical processes and in the energy seactor.
ContentReview of electrochemical thermodynamics, description electrochemical kinetics, Butler-Volmer equation, Tafel kinetics, simple electrochemical reactions, electron transfer, Marcus Theory, fundamentals of electrocatalysis, elementary reaction processes, rate-determining steps in electrochemical reactions, practical examples and applications specifically for electrochemical energy conversion processes, introduction to electrochemical methods, mass transport in electrochemical systems. Introduction to fuel cells and electrolysis
Lecture notesWill be handed out during the Semester
LiteraturePhysical Electrochemistry, E. Gileadi, Wiley VCH
Electrochemical Methods, A. Bard/L. Faulkner, Wiley-VCH
Modern Electrochemistry 2A - Fundamentals of Electrodics, J. Bockris, A. Reddy, M. Gamboa-Aldeco, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers
227-0948-00LMagnetic Resonance Imaging in MedicineW4 credits3GS. Kozerke, M. Weiger Senften
AbstractIntroduction to magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, encoding and contrast mechanisms and their application in medicine.
ObjectiveUnderstand the basic principles of signal generation, image encoding and decoding, contrast manipulation and the application thereof to assess anatomical and functional information in-vivo.
ContentIntroduction to magnetic resonance imaging including basic phenomena of nuclear magnetic resonance; 2- and 3-dimensional imaging procedures; fast and parallel imaging techniques; image reconstruction; pulse sequences and image contrast manipulation; equipment; advanced techniques for identifying activated brain areas; perfusion and flow; diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking; contrast agents; localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging; diagnostic applications and applications in research.
Lecture notesD. Meier, P. Boesiger, S. Kozerke
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy
227-0384-00LUltrasound Fundamentals, Imaging, and Medical Applications
Course is offered for the last time in Spring Semester 2020.
W4 credits3GO. Göksel
AbstractUltrasound is the only imaging modality that is nonionizing (safe), real-time, cost-effective, and portable, with many medical uses in diagnosis, intervention guidance, surgical navigation, and as a therapeutic option. In this course, we introduce conventional and prospective applications of ultrasound, starting with the fundamentals of ultrasound physics and imaging.
ObjectiveStudents can use the fundamentals of ultrasound, to analyze and evaluate ultrasound imaging techniques and applications, in particular in the field of medicine, as well as to design and implement basic applications.
ContentUltrasound is used in wide range of products, from car parking sensors, to assessing fault lines in tram wheels. Medical imaging is the eye of the doctor into body; and ultrasound is the only imaging modality that is nonionizing (safe), real-time, cheap, and portable. Some of its medical uses include diagnosing breast and prostate cancer, guiding needle insertions/biopsies, screening for fetal anomalies, and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias. Ultrasound physically interacts with the tissue, and thus can also be used therapeutically, e.g., to deliver heat to treat tumors, break kidney stones, and targeted drug delivery. Recent years have seen several novel ultrasound techniques and applications – with many more waiting in the horizon to be discovered.

This course covers ultrasonic equipment, physics of wave propagation, numerical methods for its simulation, image generation, beamforming (basic delay-and-sum and advanced methods), transducers (phased-, linear-, convex-arrays), near- and far-field effect, imaging modes (e.g., A-, M-, B-mode), Doppler and harmonic imaging, ultrasound signal processing techniques (e.g., filtering, time-gain-compensation, displacement tracking), image analysis techniques (deconvolution, real-time processing, tracking, segmentation, computer-assisted interventions), acoustic-radiation force, plane-wave imaging, contrast agents, micro-bubbles, elastography, biomechanical characterization, high-intensity focused ultrasound and therapy, lithotripsy, histotripsy, photo-acoustics phenomenon and opto-acoustic imaging, as well as sample non-medical applications such as the basics of non-destructive testing (NDT).

Hands-on exercises: These will help to apply the concepts learned in the course, using simulation environments (such as Matlab k-Wave and FieldII toolboxes). The exercises will involve a mix of design, implementation, and evaluation examples commonly encountered in practical applications.

Project: Current and relevant applications in the field of ultrasound are offered as project topics. Projects will be carried out throughout the course, where the project reporting and presentations will be due towards the end of the semester. These will be part of the assessment in grading.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: Familiarity with basic numerical methods.
Basic programming skills in Matlab.
227-0303-00LAdvanced PhotonicsW6 credits2V + 2U + 1AA. Emboras, M. Burla, A. Dorodnyy
AbstractThe lecture gives a comprehensive insight into various types of nano-scale photonic devices, physical fundamentals of their operation, and an overview of the micro/nano-fabrication technologies. Following applications of nano-scale photonic structures are discussed in details: detectors, photovoltaic cells, atomic/ionic opto-electronic devices and integrated microwave photonics.
ObjectiveGeneral training in advanced photonic devices with an in-depth understanding of the fundamentals of theory, fabrication, and characterization. Hands-on experience with photonic and optoelectronic device technologies and theory. The students will learn about the importance of advanced photonic devices in energy, communications, digital and neuromorphic computing applications.
ContentThe following topics will be addressed:
• Photovoltaics: basic thermodynamic principles and fundamental efficiency limitations, physics of semiconductor solar cell, overview of existing solar cell concepts and underlying physical phenomena.
• Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for advanced optoelectronic devices: introduction and device examples.
• Comprehensive insight into the physical mechanisms that govern ionic-atomic devices, present the techniques required to fabricate ultra-scaled nanostructures and show some applications in digital and neuromorphic computing.
• Introduction to microwave photonics (MWP), microwave photonic links, photonic techniques for microwave signal generation and processing.
Lecture notesThe presentation and the lecture notes will be provided every week.
Literature“Atomic/Ionic Devices”:
• Resistive Switching: From Fundamentals of Nanoionic Redox Processes to Memristive Device Applications, Daniele Ielmini and Rainer Waser, Wiley-VCH
• Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications, A. Bard and L. Faulkner, John Willey & Sons, Inc.

“Photovoltaics”:
• Prof. Peter Wurfel: Physics of Solar Cells, Wiley

“Micro and nano Fabrication”:
• Prof. H. Gatzen, Prof. Volker Saile, Prof. Juerg Leuthold: Micro and Nano Fabrication, Springer

“Microwave Photonics”:
• D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering. J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 2005.
• M. Burla, Advanced integrated optical beam forming networks for broadband phased array antenna systems. Enschede, The Netherlands, 2013. DOI: 10.3990/1.9789036507295
• C.H. Cox, Analog optical links: theory and practice. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic knowledge of semiconductor physics, physics of the electromagnetic filed and thermodynamics.
227-0390-00LElements of MicroscopyW4 credits3GM. Stampanoni, G. Csúcs, A. Sologubenko
AbstractThe lecture reviews the basics of microscopy by discussing wave propagation, diffraction phenomena and aberrations. It gives the basics of light microscopy, introducing fluorescence, wide-field, confocal and multiphoton imaging. It further covers 3D electron microscopy and 3D X-ray tomographic micro and nanoimaging.
ObjectiveSolid introduction to the basics of microscopy, either with visible light, electrons or X-rays.
ContentIt would be impossible to imagine any scientific activities without the help of microscopy. Nowadays, scientists can count on very powerful instruments that allow investigating sample down to the atomic level.
The lecture includes a general introduction to the principles of microscopy, from wave physics to image formation. It provides the physical and engineering basics to understand visible light, electron and X-ray microscopy.
During selected exercises in the lab, several sophisticated instrument will be explained and their capabilities demonstrated.
LiteratureAvailable Online.
227-0396-00LEXCITE Interdisciplinary Summer School on Bio-Medical Imaging Restricted registration - show details
The school admits 60 MSc or PhD students with backgrounds in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, computer science or engineering based on a selection process.

Students have to apply for acceptance by April 20, 2020. To apply a curriculum vitae and an application letter need to be submitted. The notification of acceptance will be given by May 22, 2020. Further information can be found at: www.excite.ethz.ch.
W4 credits6GS. Kozerke, G. Csúcs, J. Klohs-Füchtemeier, S. F. Noerrelykke, M. P. Wolf
AbstractTwo-week summer school organized by EXCITE (Center for EXperimental & Clinical Imaging TEchnologies Zurich) on biological and medical imaging. The course covers X-ray imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging, ultrasound imaging, infrared and optical microscopy, electron microscopy, image processing and analysis.
ObjectiveStudents understand basic concepts and implementations of biological and medical imaging. Based on relative advantages and limitations of each method they can identify preferred procedures and applications. Common foundations and conceptual differences of the methods can be explained.
ContentTwo-week summer school on biological and medical imaging. The course covers concepts and implementations of X-ray imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging, ultrasound imaging, infrared and optical microscopy and electron microscopy. Multi-modal and multi-scale imaging and supporting technologies such as image analysis and modeling are discussed. Dedicated modules for physical and life scientists taking into account the various backgrounds are offered.
Lecture notesHand-outs, Web links
Prerequisites / NoticeThe school admits 60 MSc or PhD students with backgrounds in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, computer science or engineering based on a selection process. To apply a curriculum vitae, a statement of purpose and applicants references need to be submitted. Further information can be found at: http://www.excite.ethz.ch/education/summer-school.html
227-0434-10LMathematics of Information Information W8 credits3V + 2U + 2AH. Bölcskei
AbstractThe class focuses on mathematical aspects of

1. Information science: Sampling theorems, frame theory, compressed sensing, sparsity, super-resolution, spectrum-blind sampling, subspace algorithms, dimensionality reduction

2. Learning theory: Approximation theory, uniform laws of large numbers, Rademacher complexity, Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension
ObjectiveThe aim of the class is to familiarize the students with the most commonly used mathematical theories in data science, high-dimensional data analysis, and learning theory. The class consists of the lecture, exercise sessions with homework problems, and of a research project, which can be carried out either individually or in groups. The research project consists of either 1. software development for the solution of a practical signal processing or machine learning problem or 2. the analysis of a research paper or 3. a theoretical research problem of suitable complexity. Students are welcome to propose their own project at the beginning of the semester. The outcomes of all projects have to be presented to the entire class at the end of the semester.
ContentMathematics of Information

1. Signal representations: Frame theory, wavelets, Gabor expansions, sampling theorems, density theorems

2. Sparsity and compressed sensing: Sparse linear models, uncertainty relations in sparse signal recovery, matching pursuits, super-resolution, spectrum-blind sampling, subspace algorithms (MUSIC, ESPRIT, matrix pencil), estimation in the high-dimensional noisy case, Lasso

3. Dimensionality reduction: Random projections, the Johnson-Lindenstrauss Lemma

Mathematics of Learning

4. Approximation theory: Nonlinear approximation theory, fundamental limits on compressibility of signal classes, Kolmogorov-Tikhomirov epsilon-entropy of signal classes, optimal compression of signal classes, recovery from incomplete data, information-based complexity, curse of dimensionality

5. Uniform laws of large numbers: Rademacher complexity, Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension, classes with polynomial discrimination, blessings of dimensionality
Lecture notesDetailed lecture notes will be provided at the beginning of the semester and as we go along.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course is aimed at students with a background in basic linear algebra, analysis, statistics, and probability.

We encourage students who are interested in mathematical data science to take both this course and "401-4944-20L Mathematics of Data Science" by Prof. A. Bandeira. The two courses are designed to be complementary.

H. Bölcskei and A. Bandeira
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