Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2020

Environmental Engineering Bachelor Information
2. Semester
First Year Examinations (2. Sem.)
401-0242-00LAnalysis II Restricted registration - show details O7 credits5V + 2UM. Akveld
AbstractMathematical tools of an engineer
ObjectiveMathematics as a tool to solve engineering problems, mathematical formulation of problems in science and engineering. Basic mathematical knowledge of an engineer
ContentMulti variable calculus: gradient, directional derivative, chain rule, Taylor expansion. Multiple integrals: coordinate transformations, path integrals, integrals over surfaces, theorems of Green, Gauss and Stokes, applications in physics.
Lecture notesThe lecturer's lecture notes will be available in Moodle.
Literature- Dürrschnabel, Mathematik für Ingenieure
- M. Akveld, R. Sperb. Analysis II. vdf, 2015
- James Stewart: Multivariable Calculus, Thomson Brooks/Cole
- Papula, L.: Mathematik für Ingenieure 2, Vieweg Verlag
- Arens et al., Mathematik.
Prerequisites / NoticeAnalysis I
401-0612-00LStatistics and Probability Theory Information O5 credits3V + 1UP. L. Bühlmann
AbstractEinführung in die Grundlagen der Statistik, Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie und Modellierung von Unsicherheiten im Zusammenhang mit Entscheidungsfindungen im Ingenieurwesen. Die Schwerpunkte liegen im Erstellen wahrscheinlichkeitstheoretischer Modelle, im Testen von Hypothesen und in der Überprüfung der Modelle. Als Software wird MATLAB verwendet.
ObjectiveDas Ziel des Kurses besteht darin, den Studenten grundlegende Hilfsmittel der Statistik und Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie näherzubringen. Stets bezogen auf den Bereich der Risikobeurteilung und Entscheidungsfindung im Ingenieurwesen liegt der Schwerpunkt in der Anwendung der Hilfsmittel und in der Argumentation, die hinter der Anwendung dieser Disziplinen steht.
ContentGrundlagen der Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie:

Grundlagen der Mengenlehre, Definitionen von Wahrscheinlichkeit, Axiome der Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie, Wahrscheinlichkeiten von Vereinigungen und Schnittmengen, bedingte Wahrscheinlichkeiten, Satz von Bayes.

Modellierung von Unsicherheiten:

Zufallsvariablen, diskrete und kontinuierliche Verteilungen, Momente, Verteilungsparameter, Eigenschaften des Erwartungswertes, multivariate Verteilungen, Funktionen von Zufallsvariablen, der zentrale Grenzwertsatz, typische Verteilungen im Ingenieurswesen.

Beschreibende Statistik:

Grafische Darstellungen (Histogramme, Streudiagramme, Box-Plots), numerische Kennwerte.

Schätzungen und Modellbildung:

Auswahl der Verteilungsmodelle, QQ-Plots, Parameterschätzung, Momentenmethode, Maximum-Likelihood-Methode, Vertrauensintervalle, Hypothesentests.
Lecture notesEin Skript wird zur Verfügung gestellt.
252-0846-00LComputer Science II Information O4 credits2V + 2UF. Friedrich Wicker, H. Lehner
AbstractTogether with the introductory course Informatics I this course provides the foundations of programming. This course particularly covers algorithms and data structures. Programming languages used in this course are Java and Python.
ObjectiveBasing on the knowledge covered by lecture Informatics I, the primary educational objectives of this course are constructive knowledge of data structures and algorithms.

When successfully attended the course, students have a good command of the mechanisms to construct an object oriented program. They know the typically used control and data structures and understand how an algorithmic problem is mapped to a sufficiently efficient computer program.

Secondary goals are an algorithmic computational thinking, undestanding the possibilities and limits of programming and to impart the way of thinking of a computer scientist.
ContentWe discuss typical data structures and algorithms.

More generally, formal thinking and the need for abstraction and importance of appropriate modeling capabilities will be motivated. Concrete topics are complexity of algorithms, divide and conquer-principles, recursion, sort- and search-algorithms, elementary dynamic data structures, algorithms on graphs.

The concepts of the lectures will be motivated with applications. The programming languages used in the lectures and the practical exercises are Java and Python.

For the exercises an online-compiler and online-submission system is used.
Lecture notesThe slides will be available for download on the course home page.
LiteratureRobert Sedgewick, Kevin Wayne, Introduction to Programming in Java: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Addison-Wesley, 2008

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, R. Rivest, C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms , 3rd ed., MIT Press, 2009
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites are knowledge and programming experience according to course 252-0845-00 Computer Science I (D-BAUG).
151-0510-00LEngineering MechanicsO6 credits4GC. Glocker, J. Dual
AbstractIntroduction to engineering mechanics: statics and elementary dynamics
ObjectiveStudents can solve problems of elementary engineering mechanics.
ContentBasic notions: position and velocitiy of particles, rigid bodies, planar motion, kinematics of rigid body, force, couple, power.
Statics: static equivalence, force-couple system, center of forces, centroid, principle of virtual power, equilibrium, constraints, statics, friction.
Dynamics: acceleration, inertial forces, d'Alembert's Principle, Newton's Second Law, principles of linear and angular momentum, equations of planar motion of rigid bodies.
Lecture noteslecture notes, in German
LiteratureKeine vorausgesetzt. Empfohlen für die Weiterbildung:
M.B. Sayir, J. Dual, S. Kaufmann, E. Mazza: "Ingenieurmechanik 1, Grundlagen und Statik". Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 2015.
M.B. Sayir, S. Kaufmann: "Ingenieurmechanik 3, Dynamik". Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 2014.
529-2002-02LChemistry IIO5 credits2V + 2UJ. Cvengros, J. E. E. Buschmann, P. Funck, H. Grützmacher, E. C. Meister, R. Verel
AbstractChemistry II: Redox reactions, chemistry of the elements, introduction to organic chemistry
ObjectiveGeneral base for understanding of inorganic and organic chemistry.
Content1. Redoxreactions

2. Inorganic Chemistry
Rules for nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Systematic description of the groups of elements in the periodical system and the most important compounds of these elements. Formation of compounds as a consequence of the electronoc structure of the elements.

3. Introduction to organic chemistry
Description of the most important classes of compounds and of the functional groups. Principal reactivity of these functional groups.
Rection mechanisms: SN1- and SN2-reactions, electrophilic aromatic subtitutions, eliminations (E1 and E2), addition reactions (C=C and C=O double bonds). Chemistry of carbony and carboxyl groups.
Lecture notesC.E.Housecroft, E.C.Constable, Chemistry, 4rd Edition, Pearson, Harlow (England), 2010 (ISBN 0-131-27567-4), Chap. 18-33
LiteratureTheodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Bruce E. Bursten, CHEMIE. 14. Auflage, Pearson Studium, 2018.

D.W.Oxtoby, H.P.Gillis, N.H.Nachtrieb, PRINCIPLES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY, 8th Edition, Thomson, London, 2016.
First Year Project Work
101-0510-00LFirst Year Project Work Restricted registration - show details O3 credits6AD. Braun, M. Floriancic, S. Leinss, E. Morgenroth, J. Wang
AbstractProject on a topic pertaining to Environmental Engineering or Geomatics and Planning. The project work is carried out in a team.
ObjectiveThe project work not only tests efficiency in team- and project management, but also how to develop clearly structured, interdisciplinary concept solutions.
ContentStudents can choose from different subjects and tasks.
4. Semester
Compulsory Courses 4. Semester
Examination Block 2
102-0214-00LIntroduction to Urban Water Management Information Restricted registration - show details
Only for students in Environmental Engineering BSc who need to purchase 6 CP. For these students the excursions are compulsory and they have to enrol for the course unit 102-0214-00L.

Other students have to enrole for the course unit 102-0214-02L (without excursions).
O6 credits4G + 1PE. Morgenroth, M. Maurer
AbstractIntroduction to urban water management (water supply, urban drainage, wastewater treatment, sewage sluge treatment)
ObjectiveThis course provides an introduction and an overview over the topics of urban water management (water supply, urban drainage, wastewater treatment, sewage sludge treatment). It supports the understanding of the interactions of the relevant technical and natural systems. Simple design models are introduced.
ContentOverview over the field of urban water management.
Introduction into systems analysis.
Characterization of water and water quality.
Requirement of drinking water, production of wastewater and pollutants
Production and supply of drinking water.
Urban drainage, treatment of combined sewer overflow.
Wastewater treatment, nutrient elimination, sludge handling.
Planning of urban water infrastructure.
Lecture notesGujer, W.: Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, 3. Aufl., Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course is required for further in depth courses in urban water management.
102-0324-01LEcological Systems Analysis Restricted registration - show details O6 credits4G + 1PS. Hellweg, S. Rubli, N. von Götz
AbstractThis lecture deals with the methodological basics and application of various environmental assessment tools.
ObjectiveAfter attending the lecture, students know environmental assessment tools, such as material flow analysis, risk assessment, and life cycle assessment. They can identify and apply the appropriate tool in a given situation. Also, they are able to critically assess existing studies.
Content- Stofffluss- / Materialflussanalyse
- Chemische Produktrisikoanalyse
- Ökobilanz
- Umweltfragestellung und Entscheidungsprozesse: Praxisbeispiele
Lecture notesSkript und Übungsunterlagen werden auf Moodle bereitgestellt.
Prerequisites / NoticeDie Lehrveranstaltung ist aufgeteilt in Vorlesungsstunden und Übungsstunden.
102-0474-00LIntroduction to Water Resources ManagementO4 credits4GP. Burlando
AbstractThe course offers an introduction to the basics of water resources analysis and management covering the topics of water demand vs availability, water exploitation and reservoir design, aquatic physics, water quality and pollution, water conservation and remediation in rivers, lakes and aquifers, sustainable water use. The course will be complemented by a few guest lectures.
ObjectiveIntroduction to the basics of water resources management based on physical and chemical processes; principle of sustainability
ContentIntroduction: Overview water cycle, terms, global water situation, demand-supply, role of water management, sustainability, and Integrated Water Resources Management
General concepts of water resources management.
Estimation of water resources demand, hydrological deficit
Introduction to Time Series Analysis and Stochastic Modelling,
Linear Stochastic Models, Thomas-Fiering model
Droughts: Definition, Identification, quantitative analysis, water abstraction, impact, mitigation.
Run of river water abstraction.
Reservoir design (Rippl, Probability), Simulation, Reservoir reliability (Moran's method)
Aquatic physics: Flow phenomena in river, lake, estuary, groundwater, time constants, tracer transport, environmental tracers
River and basin morphology and interaction with infrastructure
River restoration: Alpenrhein case study
Water quality: Pollutants and effects, standards, water quality classification, water chemistry, BOD-DO model, Streeter Phelps Model eutrophication of lakes, nitrate problem
Water resources protection and remediation: rivers, lakes, and groundwater
Lecture notesHandouts on homepage
Examination Block 3
The remaining courses of examination block 3 will be offered in autum semester.
102-0325-00LWaste ManagementO4 credits3GC. Leitzinger, L. S. Morf
AbstractIntroduction into the problems of waste handling with the goal to get the ability of seeing and improving the influence of commodities and products with there packaging to the environment - as they are becoming waste. Knowing the different mechanical and chemical processes, which are applicable in the field of waste management.
Objective*To reconstruct the historical development of the waste problems (C2)
*To know the problems of a modern waste management (C4)
*To see and to improve the influence of commodities and products to the environment (C5)
*To recognize waste and his components as raw material and resources and to get the know how for a correct handling (C6)
*To know the different mechanical and chemical processes, which are applicable in the field of waste management (C6)
ContentThis lecture gives a comprehensive overview of the different waste-types and waste handling possibilities:
*Waste composition as a mirror of the human evolution
*Waste definition (formation, amount, energy content, waste composition)
*Several recycling possibilities and processes
*Thermal waste treatment (electricity/district heat as products), including off-gas cleaning and incineration residue handling with regards to the final residue storage in a landfill and the problems which have to be solved there
*Special fields like biological waste handling (composting, fermentation), handling of special wastes and municipal sewage sludge treatment
*Economical aspects
Lecture notesMartin F. Lemann: Waste Management
2nd enhanced English Edition 2008, 450 pages
Publisher: Peter Lang AG, Bern
ISBN 978-3-03911-514-3he Ausgabe
Literaturesee bibliographie in the script
Prerequisites / Noticebasic of chemical processes has to be known
Additional Compulsory Courses
102-0524-00LLaboratory Course in Environmental Engineering I Restricted registration - show details O7 credits4PD. Braun, L. Biolley, P. M. Kienzler, L. von Känel
AbstractA practical introduction to important measurement methods for environmental engineers. Results of the measurements are compared to models and deviations are quantified with statistical methods.
ObjectiveA practical introduction to important measurement methods for environmental engineers. Results of the measurements are compared to models and deviations are quantified with statistical methods.
ContentEs werden Experimente zu den folgenden Themen durchgeführt:
- Chemische Analysen in der Abwasserbehandlung
- Koagulation und Flockung
- Fraktionierung von Korngemischen
- Alkalinität und Wasserhärte
- Strömung in porösen Medien (Darcy Gesetz)
- Stofftransport in porösen Medien

Die folgenden analytischen Methoden werden dabei eingesetzt:
- UV/VIS-Spektroskopie
- Leitfähigkeitsmessungen
- Messen mit ionensensitiven Elektroden
- Ionenchromatographie
- Atomabsorptionsspektroskopie
Lecture notesUnterlagen werden abgegeben.
102-0516-01LEnvironmental Impact AssessmentO3 credits2GS.‑E. Rabe
AbstractFocus of the course are the method, the process and content of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as well as the legal bases and methods for compiling an environmental impact study (EIS).
Using examples, a comprehensive view of the EIA is made possible by means of excursions.
In the frame of a project the process of am EIA will be workt out by the students.
Objective- Understanding the context of spatial planning and environmental protection
- Ability to use central planning instruments and procedures for assessing the environmental impacts and risks of projects
- Ability to apply quantitative methods to assess the environmental impacts and risks of projects
- Knowledge about the process and content of an EIA
- a capacity for critical review of environmental impact assessments
Content- Nominal and functional environmental protection in Switzerland
- Instruments of environmental protection
- Need for coordination between environmental protection and spatial planning
- Environmental Protection and environmental impact assessment
- Legal basis of the EIA
- Procedure of EIA
- Content of the EIA
- Content and structure of the EIS
- Application of the impact analysis
- Monitoring and Controlling
- View regarding the strategic environmental assessment (SEA)
- Excursions projects obligated under the EEA
Lecture notesNo script. The documents for the lecture can be found for download on the homepage of the Chair of Planning of Landscape and Urban Systems.

Literature- Bundesamt für Umwelt 2009: UVP-Handbuch. Richtlinie des Bundes
für die Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung. Umwelt-Vollzug Nr. 0923,
Bern. 156 S.
- Leitfäden zur UVP (werden in der Vorlesung bekannt gegben)
Prerequisites / NoticeAdditional information on mode of examination:
No calculators allowed
6. Semester
Compulsory Courses 6. Semester
Examination Block 4
851-0705-01LEnvironmental Law II: Fields of Law and Case StudiesO3 credits2VM. Pflüger, A. Gossweiler
AbstractOverview of selected fields of Swiss Environmental Law. Outline of European Environmental Law (excursus). Immission control (protection against noise, air pollution), climate protection, conservation of water, forest and nature, regulations on waste and contaminated sites. Theory and consolidation based on case studies and guest lectures.
ObjectiveBasic understanding of scope and function of Environmental Law in the selected fields. Basic knowledge of legal instruments and of interrelations within Environmental Law and other fields of law. The students will be able to comprehend all sides of a question and to develop a possible legal solution (practical training on case studies).
ContentDie Vorlesung gliedert sich in einzelne Teile und umfasst hauptsächlich folgende Themen: Grundkonzept des Immissionsschutzes, Lärmschutz und Luftreinhaltung, Klimaschutz, Gewässerschutz, Naturschutz, Wald, Behandlung von Abfällen/Altlasten. Diskussion von konkreten Fällen. Vorgesehen sind zudem zwei Gastreferate von externen Experten.
Lecture notesChristoph Jäger/Andreas Bühler, Schweizerisches Umweltrecht, Stämpfli-Skripten, Bern 2016
Prerequisites / NoticeVorausgesetzt wird der Besuch der Vorlesung "Umweltrecht I: Grundlagen und Konzepte" im Herbstsemester
Additional Compulsory Courses
102-0526-01LLaboratory Course in Environmental Engineering II Restricted registration - show details O7 credits4PD. Braun, M. Floriancic, H. P. Füchslin, S. Rubli, B. Schäppi, P. Weber
AbstractCharacterisation of relevant processes and systems for the environment with experimental methods: incineration plants, activated sludge reactors, hydraulic systems, evapotranspiration, disinfection of drinking water.
ObjectiveCharacterisation of relevant processes and systems for the environment with experimental methods: incineration plants, activated sludge reactors, hydraulic systems, evapotranspiration, disinfection of drinking water.
ContentEs werden Experimente zu den folgenden Gebieten durchgeführt:
- Hydromechanische Experimente und Strömungsmesstechnik
- Sauerstoffeintrag und Sauerstoffzehrung in Belebtschlammreaktoren
- Erhebung und Analyse von hydrologischen Daten, Berechnung der Evapotranspiration.
- Mikrobiologische Untersuchung und Desinfektion von Trinkwasser
- Einfache Stoffflussanalyse von einer Holzverbrennungsanlage
Lecture notesUnterlagen werden abgegeben.
Elective Blocks
Elective Block: Environmental Planning
101-0414-00LTransport Planning (Transportation I) Information W3 credits2GK. W. Axhausen
AbstractThe lecture course discusses the basic concepts, approaches and methods of transport planning in both their theoretical and practical contexts.
ObjectiveThe course introduces the basic theories and methods of transport planning.
ContentBasic theoretical links between transport, space and economic development; basic terminology; measurement and observation of travel behaviour; methods of the four stage approach; cost-benefit analysis.
LiteratureOrtuzar, J. de D. and L. Willumsen (2011) Modelling Transport, Wiley, Chichester.
103-0357-00LEnvironmental Planning Information W3 credits2GM. Sudau, S.‑E. Rabe
AbstractThe lecture covers tools, methods and procedures of
Landscape and Environmental Planning developed. By means of field trips their implementation will be illustrated.
ObjectiveKnowledge of the various instruments and possibilities for the practical implementation of environmental planning.
Knowledge of the complex interactions of the instruments.
Content- forest planning
- inventories
- Intervention and compensation
- ecological network
- agricultural policy
- landscape development concepts (LEK)
- parks
- swiss concept of landscape
- riverine zone
- natural hazards
- field trips
Lecture notes- lecture notes concerning the instruments
- Handouts
- Copies of selected literature

Prerequisites / NoticeAdditional information on mode of examination:
No calculators allowed
Elective Block: Soil Protection
701-0524-00LSoil BiologyW3 credits2VO. Daniel, B. W. Frey
AbstractSoil organisms play a key role in natural soil functions. The course focuses on anthropogenic impacts such as management, land-use change and climate change on soil biodiversity.
ObjectiveBasic knowledge on biological structures and functions in soil. Discussion of biological interactions, nutrient cycles and energy fluxes in the subsurface. Here we try to answer the following questions: How do environmental factors influence soil organisms? How they can be studied and how they are influenced? Which ecosystem functions are performed by soil organisms? What are important microbial processes in the carbon and nitrogen cycle?
ContentStructure of the habitat soil: Chemical, physical and biological factors coupling soil-water-air. Structure of soil biocoenoses. Soil fauna-environment and soil microorganism-environment interactions. Nutrient cycles, organic matter decomposition and biologically catalyzed processes in soil. Evaluation of soil biological methods.
Lecture notesHandouts and student assignments will be distributed during the course.
LiteratureNo specific books required. Some recommendations will be given in the course
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: basic knowledge in soil physics, soil chemistry, zoology and mikrobiology.
701-0518-00LSoil Resources and Global ChangeW3 credits2GS. Dötterl, M. W. Evangelou
AbstractIntroduction into the importance, concepts and areas of action related to soil development and the use of soil resources in a changing world.
ObjectiveUnderstanding the
- conditions under which soils develop and are used at the global scale

- consequences and problems of the use of soil and the resulting pressure on soil resources

- impact of climate and global change on the future development of soil resources
ContentSoil functions and soil formation; regional and global soil development, impacts of land use on soil water and gas circulation; forms of soil pollution and degradation; regional and global estimates of soil degradation; soil amendment and remediation of contaminated soils; planning and legal implementation of soil protection.
Lecture notesHandouts will be available for download. Related scientific articles will be recommended after each session.
LiteratureSome useful text books to know of:

- Scheffer/Schachtschabel - Soil Science, Springer, Heidelberg, 2016.

- Brady N.C. and Weil, R.R. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 14th ed. Prentice Hall, 2007.

- Press & Siever: Allgemeine Geologie, 7th ed., Springer, Heidelberg, 2016.

- Mason/Burt - Physical Geography, 5th ed., Oxford Uni. Press, Oxford, 2015.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: Interest in physical geography and soil development. Basic knowledge in chemistry, biology and geology. A previous participation in lecture "Pedosphere" (701-​0501-00L) is recommended.
Elective Block: Civil Engineering
101-0206-00LHydraulic EngineeringW5 credits4GR. Boes
AbstractHydraulic systems, schemes and structures (e.g. dams, intakes, conduits, pipes, open channels, weirs, powerhouses, locks), fundamentals in river engineering and natural hazards
ObjectiveKnowledge of hydraulic systems and their main hydraulic components and structures; competence in planning and design of hydraulic structures with regard to serviceability, reliability and cost-effectiveness
ContentHydraulic systems: High-head storage power plants and low-head run-of-river power plants.
Weirs: weir and gate types, hydraulic design.
Intakes: intake types, desilting facilities and sand traps.
Channels: design, open and closed channels.
Closed conduits: linings, hydraulic design of pressure tunnels and shafts.
Dams and reservoirs: dam types, appurtenant structures
River engineering: flow computation, sediment transport, engineering and environmental measures.
Natural hazards: types, basics of countermeasures
Inland navigation: channels and locks.
Exercises in written form, exercises in hydraulic and computer laboratory.
Field trip.
Lecture notesComprehensive script "Hydraulic structures" in German.
Literatureliterature references are given at the end of each chapter of the script. Recommended books: see course description in German
Prerequisites / Noticestrongly recommended: basic knowledge in hydraulics (fluid mechanics)
Elective Block: Energy
Offer in HS (as from HS19 on):
-227-1635-00L Electric Circuits
-151-1633-00L Energy Conversion
At least 10KP must be achieved for the elective block: Energy.
529-0191-01LElectrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage TechnologiesW4 credits3GL. Gubler, E. Fabbri, J. Herranz Salañer
AbstractThe course provides an introduction to the principles and applications of electrochemical energy conversion (e.g. fuel cells) and storage (e.g. batteries) technologies in the broader context of a renewable energy system.
ObjectiveStudents will discover the importance of electrochemical energy conversion and storage in energy systems of today and the future, specifically in the framework of renewable energy scenarios. Basics and key features of electrochemical devices will be discussed, and applications in the context of the overall energy system will be highlighted with focus on future mobility technologies and grid-scale energy storage. Finally, the role of (electro)chemical processes in power-to-X and deep decarbonization concepts will be elaborated.
ContentOverview of energy utilization: past, present and future, globally and locally; today’s and future challenges for the energy system; climate changes; renewable energy scenarios; introduction to electrochemistry; electrochemical devices, basics and their applications: batteries, fuel cells, electrolyzers, flow batteries, supercapacitors, chemical energy carriers: hydrogen & synthetic natural gas; electromobility; grid-scale energy storage, power-to-gas, power-to-X and deep decarbonization, techno-economics and life cycle analysis.
Lecture notesall lecture materials will be available for download on the course website.
Literature- M. Sterner, I. Stadler (Eds.): Handbook of Energy Storage (Springer, 2019).
- C.H. Hamann, A. Hamnett, W. Vielstich; Electrochemistry, Wiley-VCH (2007).
- T.F. Fuller, J.N. Harb: Electrochemical Engineering, Wiley (2018)
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic physical chemistry background required, prior knowledge of electrochemistry basics desired.
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