Claude Garcia: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2017
|Name||Dr. Claude Garcia|
Gruppe Forest Management & Develop
ETH Zürich, CHN H 71
|Department||Environmental Systems Science|
|701-0029-00L||Environmental Systems II||3 credits||2V||B. Wehrli, C. Garcia, M. Sonnevelt|
|Abstract||The lecture provides a science-based exploration of three important environmental systems: Inland waters, forest, and of food systems.|
|Objective||The students are able to explain important functions of the three environmental systems, to discuss critical drivers, trends and conflicts of their use and to compare potential solutions.|
|Content||Aquatic ecosystems and their function, water use and its impact, water pollution and water treatment, water and health, water technologies, water & energy.|
Forests and agroforest systems, trends and drivers of land use changes, sustainable forest management.
The main functions, trends and challenges of agricultural and food systems are discussed based on the four dimensions of food security (availability, access, utilization of food and stability of the food systems).
|Lecture notes||Lecture notes or other documentation are provided by instructors and accessible via moodle.|
|701-0659-00L||Tropical Forests, Agroforestry and Complex Socio-Ecological Systems||3 credits||2G||C. Garcia, A. Giger Dray|
|Abstract||The course will focus on integrated landscape approaches for the management of tropical forest landscapes, by addressing the complex interactions between ecological processes, stakeholders´ strategies and public policies. Dedicated tools such as games and simulation models to improve knowledge and foster collective decision-making processes will be explored.|
|Objective||Through the course the students will learn:|
Section 1: Concepts and Methods
1. To master definitions and concepts: SES; Vulnerability; Resilience, Environmentalist Paradox.
2. To gain exposure to methods for assessing stakeholders perceptions/practices/knowledge.
Section 2: Recognising diversity & Interdisciplinarity
1. To understand points of views/normative views and how these shape management objectives and practices.
2. Gain familiarity with major schools of thought on Natural Resources Management - Theory of the commons, Political Ecology, Vulnerability, Resilience.
3. To explore interdisciplinary approaches to natural resources management.
Section 3: Topics and Arenas
1. To understand links between Forest, Trees and Livelihoods - poverty, food security & well-being.
2. Gain familiarity with drivers of deforestation; degradation; reforestation.
3. Knowledge of global arenas affecting the international forest regime, and their impact at the local level.
4. To recognise and understand trade-offs between conservation and development in a forest/agroforest context;
A major objective of the course is to encourage students to develop a critical analysis of existing conservation and development narratives within the frame of agroforestry and forested agricultural landscapes. The course will also provide students with methods and tools to assess stakeholders perceptions/practices and knowledge, that will be of use in their professional life.
|Content||The course will address:|
1- Definitions of forests and agroforests, deconstructing the rigid historical divisions between these two, and showing the complexities and implications legal definitions will have on the management systems. We will also address the definitions of Social and Ecological System (SES) and Resilience, useful for the entire course. We will provide insights on how to describe the SES using the ARDI methodology (Actors, Resources, Dynamics and Interactions)
2- Methodological frameworks to understand drivers and coping strategies of stakeholders (Sustainable livelihood framework & Vulnerability; Ecosystem Services & trade-offs; Companion Modelling and Adaptive Management; Surveys and Participatory Appraisals)
Building upon this, and introducing the Forest Transition curve as guiding framework for the course, a series of case studies will be presented, highlighting the different drivers and issues at each stage of the transition curve (Kanninen et al. 2007).
1- Tropical Forestry - including Reduced Impact Logging, Forest Certification, and International Timber Market.
2- Secondary forests and Agroforests - landscape mosaics, forest fragments, non timber forest products, slash and burn systems, small holder production systems.
3- Conversions and Deforestation: Global trends, Biofuel extensions .
4- Reforestation and Agroforestry : Plantations.
5- Conclusion - Future trends; Global Arenas and Local Governance.
The course will tackle new and emerging topics such as the role of forests and trees in adaptation to climate change, the links between forest, poverty and food security, and the need to mainstream conservation of biodiversity outside protected areas. The course will draw from diverse disciplines, from ecology, economy, sociology, political sciences and legal studies as the most preeminent ones.
The course will enlarge the scope of the students from the ecological process to the social and political components of tropical social and ecological systems. It will address topics and case studies that the students will have little opportunity to address elsewhere, linking them to issues of global relevance in environmental sciences.
|Literature||Assunçao, J., C. C. e Gandour, and R. Rocha. 2012. Deforestation Slowdown in the Legal Amazon: Prices or Policies? Climate Policy Initiative Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.|
CGIAR Research Program 6. 2011. Forest, Trees and Agroforestry: Livelihoods, Landscapes and Governance. Page 338. CGIAR Research Program 6. CIFOR, ICRAF, CIAT, Bioversity, Bogor.
Costanza, R., R. d'Arge, R. De Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R. V. O'Neill, and J. Paruelo. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260.
FAO. 2010. Global Forest Resource Assessment 2010. Page 342. FAO, Rome.
Kanninen, M., D. Murdiyarso, F. Seymour, A. Angelsen, S. Wunder, and L. German. 2007. Do trees grow on money: The implications of deforestation research for policies to promote REDD. Forest Perspectives. Forest Perspectives. CIFOR, Bogor.
Lescuyer, G., P. O. Cerutti, E. E. Mendoula, R. Ebaa-Atyi, and R. Nasi. 2010. Chainsaw milling in the Congo Basin. ETFRN News 52:121-128.
Torquebiau, E. F. 2000. A renewed perspective on agroforestry concepts and classification. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series III-Sciences de la Vie 323:1009-1017.
World Bank. 2004. Sustaining Forests: a development strategy. Page 81, Washington, DC.
|701-1631-00L||Foundations of Ecosystem Management||5 credits||3G||J. Ghazoul, C. Garcia|
|Abstract||This course introduces the broad variety of conflicts that arise in projects focusing on sustainable management of natural resources. It explores case studies of ecosystem management approaches and considers their practicability, their achievements and possible barriers to their uptake.|
|Objective||Students should be able to |
a) propose appropriate and realistic solutions to ecosystem management problems that integrate ecological, economic and social dimensions across relevant temporal and spatial scales.
b) identify important stakeholders, their needs and interests, and the main conflicts that exist among them in the context of land and resource management.
|Content||Traditional management systems focus on extraction of natural resources, and their manipulation and governance. However, traditional management has frequently resulted in catastrophic failures such as, for example, the collapse of fish stocks and biodiversity loss. These failures have stimulated the development of alternative ‘ecosystem management’ approaches that emphasise the functionality of human-dominated systems. Inherent to such approaches are system-wide perspectives and a focus on ecological processes and services, multiple spatial and temporal scales, as well as the need to incorporate diverse stakeholder interests in decision making. Thus, ecosystem management is the science and practice of managing natural resources, biodiversity and ecological processes, to meet multiple demands of society. It can be local, regional or global in scope, and addresses critical issues in developed and developing countries relating to economic and environmental security and sustainability.|
This course provides an introduction to ecosystem management, and in particular the importance of integrating ecology into management systems to meet multiple societal demands. The course explores the extent to which human-managed terrestrial systems depend on underlying ecological processes, and the consequences of degradation of these processes for human welfare and environmental well-being. Building upon a theoretical foundation, the course will tackle issues in resource ecology and management, notably forests, agriculture and wild resources within the broader context of sustainability, biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation or economic development. Case studies from tropical and temperate regions will be used to explore these issues. Dealing with ecological and economic uncertainty, and how this affects decision making, will be discussed. Strategies for conservation and management of terrestrial ecosystems will give consideration to landscape ecology, protected area systems, and community management, paying particular attention to alternative livelihood options and marketing strategies of common pool resources.
|Lecture notes||No Script|
|Literature||Chichilnisky, G. and Heal, G. (1998) Economic returns from the biosphere. Nature, 391: 629-630.|
Daily, G.C. (1997) Nature’s Services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Island Press. Washington DC.
Hindmarch, C. and Pienkowski, M. (2000) Land Management: The Hidden Costs. Blackwell Science.
Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington DC.
Milner-Gulland, E.J. and Mace, R. (1998) Conservation of Biological Resources. Blackwell Science.
Gunderson, L.H. and Holling, C.S. (2002) Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press.
|701-1661-00L||Conservation and Development in Complex Landscapes||3 credits||6G||C. Garcia, J. Ghazoul|
|Abstract||The field course in Belize will develop an understanding of, and solutions to, issues of landscape management relevant to conservation and natural resources. Students will be expected to integrate skills in quantitative natural science with social science approaches in real world, and hence highly complex, settings.|
|Objective||To address complex multi-dimensional environmental problems through the application of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary skills.|
|Content||Day 1: Ecology of the forest habitats|
A first impression of the biology of the region will be gained through an exploration of the different forest formations, ranging from mesic forests to dry evergreen, dry deciduous, and mangrove forests. The learning objective will be to understand the underlying environmental conditions that determine forest formations within the relatively small area of Shipstern Reserve. This includes linking climate, soil, and geology with community processes to understand the mosaic of habitat types, their distribution, form, and function.
Day 2: The ecology of natural resources
Students will begin to explore how people use forest resources, ranging from timber, to a variety of non-timber forest products, and animals for hunting. This will lead to an evaluation of threats to species and habitats, and hence set the scene for subsequent work.
Day 3: Familiarisation with landscape scale dynamics
We will explore the land uses in the landscape in the vicinity of Shipstern and Freshwater creeks. This will encompass a range of land uses, including small scale to large scale agriculture, extractive forest reserves, and protected forests. In the process the students will gain a better understanding of the pressures on land and forests, and a chance to meet some of the local stakeholders involved in land use transformations.
Days 4 & 5: Problem conceptualisation
Working with reserve managers and local stakeholders the students will develop a conceptual understanding of the key problems in the region, including the underlying drivers of change.
Days 6-9: Integrative analysis
Students, working in small groups, will analyse selected natural resource problems in greater depth. Options include biodiversity responses to habitat fragmentation, conservation management of mangrove and coral reef systems, restoration ecology, community forest management, and tourism development, among others. Students will have opportunities to collect original data across natural and social sciences, and will use different modelling approaches to explore future development trajectories.
Day 10-11: Synthesis and presentation of results
Research will be synthesised and presented to the local management community of Shipstern and Freshwater Creek reserves. The course will conclude with an afternoon allocated to discussion and debriefing, including an appraisal of the challenges of addressing natural resource management issues in complex socioecological systems, and the lessons learned.
|Prerequisites / Notice||Foundations of Ecosystem Management|
|869-0103-00L||Negociating the future of the forests of the Congo Basin |
Number of participants limited to10.
Only for MAS in Science, Technology and Policy and Science, Technology and Policy MSc.
|2 credits||1G||C. Garcia|
|Abstract||For two days, the participants will take on the role of CEOs of logging and mining companies operating in the Congo Basin, developing strategies and responding to global changes. They will shape the landscape, and reflect on the ecological, economic and social impacts of their decisions.|
|Objective||The tropical forests stand at the cross-road. The combined and interacting effects of land-use change, resource extraction, defaunation and climate change are pushing these ecosystems towards critical points where transitions to altered states will happen. The future of these forests depends on our capacity to understand and anticipate these transitions. |
In this module the participants will understand the drivers behind land use change in the tropics, and will explore some the pitfalls and opportunities new markets and policies can create for the local communities and the ecosystems of the region. They will negociate new pathways of collective action and learn to cope with uncertainty.
|Content||Participants will use a game developped to explore the links between mining and logging in the Congo Basin. Each game will be followed up by a debriefing to analyse the outcomes of the strategies developped by the participants and invent possible new forms of collective action. We will link what happens in the game with highlitghts from the field. Finally, we will discuss on the use of boundary objects and particularly games to handle negociations in environmental contexts.|
|Literature||Geist HJ & Lambin EF (2002) Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Deforestation. Bioscience 52(2):143-150.|
Fernbach PM, Rogers T, Fox CR, & Sloman SA (2013) Political Extremism Is Supported by an Illusion of Understanding. Psychological Science 24(6):939-946.
Game ET, Meijaard E, Sheil D, & McDonald-Madden E (2014) Conservation in a Wicked Complex World; Challenges and Solutions. Conservation Letters 7(3):271-277.
Garcia C, Dray A, & Waeber P (2016) Learning Begins When the Game Is Over: Using Games to Embrace Complexity in Natural Resources Management. GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 25(4):289-291.
Potapov, P., Hansen, M. C., Laestadius L., Turubanova S., Yaroshenko A., Thies C., Smith W., Zhuravleva I., Komarova A., Minnemeyer S., Esipova E. 2016. The last frontiers of wilderness: Tracking loss of intact forest landscapes from 2000 to 2013. Science Advances, 2017; 3:e1600821 http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/1/e1600821
Potapov P., Yaroshenko A., Turubanova S., Dubinin M., Laestadius L., Thies C., Aksenov D., Egorov A., Yesipova Y., Glushkov I., Karpachevskiy M., Kostikova A., Manisha A., Tsybikova E., Zhuravleva I. 2008. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing. Ecology and Society, 13 (2) https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art51/
|Prerequisites / Notice||None|